Skip to main content
Log in

School-Based Interventions for Aggression and Defiance in Youth: A Framework for Evidence-Based Practice

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
School Mental Health Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Aggressive and defiant behaviors in students are costly to schools, teachers, and students. In this paper, we summarize findings from meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and meta-reviews that examined school-based interventions for aggressive and defiant behaviors in students. Results of the review suggest that school-based interventions produce significant but small positive effects on aggression and defiance, with larger effects for interventions that are implemented with higher quality. Behavioral and cognitive behavioral techniques are key components of nearly all effective school interventions, whether interventions are student-directed or teacher-/environment-directed. Specific interventions with empirical support, as identified using the Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development and “What Works Clearinghouse” databases, are briefly summarized. Finally, recommendations are made for schools considering a school intervention for aggression and defiance, and important priorities for future research are outlined.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. Throughout this paper, we conceptualize AD broadly because this is what is done in school intervention studies. However, we excluded studies that specifically examined bullying or off-task behavior because these are covered in other articles of this special issue.

  2. We use the universal/targeted/indicated framework because this is most common in the reviewed studies.

References

  • Alford, A. A., & Derzon, J. (2012). Meta-analysis and systemic review of the effectiveness of school-based programs to reduce multiple violent and antisocial behavioral outcomes. In S. R. Jimerson, A. B. Nickerson, M. J. Mayer, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of school violence and school safety: International research and practice (2nd ed., pp. 593–606). New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aloe, A. M., Shisler, S. M., Norris, B. D., Nickerson, A. B., & Rinker, T. W. (2014). A multivariate meta-analysis of student misbehavior and teacher burnout. Educational Research Review, 12, 30–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2014.05.003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • American Academy of Pediatrics Council on School Health. (2013). Out-of-school suspension and expulsion. Pediatrics, 131(3), e1000–e1007. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-3932.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • American Psychological Association. (2016). A silent national crisis: Violence against teachers. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ed/schools/cpse/activities/violence-against.aspx.

  • Atkins, M. S., Rusch, D., Mehta, T. G., & Lakind, D. (2016). Future directions for dissemination and implementation science: Aligning ecological theory and public health to close the research to practice gap. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 45(2), 215–226. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2015.1050724.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Barnes, T. N., Smith, S. W., & Miller, M. D. (2014). School-based cognitive-behavioral interventions in the treatment of aggression in the United States: A meta-analysis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19(4), 311–321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2014.04.013.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barrish, H. H., Wolf, M. M., & Saunders, M. (1969). Good behavior game: Effects of individual contingencies for group consequences on disruptive behavior in a classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2(2), 119–124.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Batton, J. (2003). Cost-benefit analysis of CRE programs in Ohio. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 21(1), 131–133.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Beecham, J. (2014). Annual research review: Child and adolescent mental health interventions—A review of progress in economic studies across different disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55(6), 714–732.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Benbenishty, R., & Astor, R. A. (2007). Monitoring indicators of children’s victimization in school: Linking national-, regional-, and site-level indicators. Social Indicators Research, 84(3), 333–348. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-007-9116-4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Benner, G. J., Beaudoin, K. M., Chen, P.-Y., Davis, C., & Ralston, N. C. (2010). The impact of intensive positive behavioral supports on the behavioral functioning of students with emotional disturbance: How much does fidelity matter? Journal of Behavior Assessment and Intervention in Children, 1(1), 85–100. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0100361.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bierman, K. L., Coie, J., Dodge, K., Greenberg, M. T., Lochman, J., McMahon, R., et al. (2013). School outcomes of aggressive-disruptive children: Prediction from kindergarten risk factors and impact of the Fast Track prevention program. Poster presented at the Aggressive Behavior.

  • Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports on student outcomes results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(3), 133–148. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300709334798.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bradshaw, C. P., Waasdorp, T. E., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems. Pediatrics, 130(5), e1136–e1145. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-0243.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Breslau, J., Miller, E., Joanie Chung, W. J., & Schweitzer, J. B. (2011). Childhood and adolescent onset psychiatric disorders, substance use, and failure to graduate high school on time. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45(3), 295–301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.06.014.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Burke, A., & Nishioka, V. (2014). Suspension and expulsion patterns in six Oregon school districts (REL 2014-028). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Northwest.

  • Christenson, J. D., Crane, D. R., Malloy, J., & Parker, S. (2016). The cost of oppositional defiant disorder and disruptive behavior: A review of the literature. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(9), 2649–2658. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0430-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1992). A developmental and clinical model for the prevention of conduct disorder: The FAST track program. Development and Psychopathology, 4(4), 509–527. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400004855.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1999). Initial impact of the fast track prevention trial for conduct problems: I. The high-risk sample. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(5), 631–647.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2002). Evaluation of the first 3 years of the fast track prevention trial with children at high risk for adolescent conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(1), 19–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cook, P. J., Gottfredson, D. C., & Na, C. (2010). School crime control and prevention. Crime and Justice, 39(1), 313–440. https://doi.org/10.1086/652387.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cornell, D., Gregory, A., Huang, F., & Fan, X. (2013). Perceived prevalence of teasing and bullying predicts high school dropout rates. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(1), 138–149. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030416.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Crean, H. F., & Johnson, D. B. (2013). Promoting alternative thinking strategies (PATHS) and elementary school aged children’s aggression: Results from a cluster randomized trial. American Journal of Community Psychology, 52(1–2), 56–72.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dodge, K. A., Bierman, K. L., Coie, J. D., Greenberg, M. T., Lochman, J. E., McMahon, R. J., et al. (2015). Impact of early intervention on psychopathology, crime, and well-being at age 25. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(1), 59–70. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13060786.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dolan, L. J., Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Werthamer-Larsson, L., Rebok, G. W., Mayer, L. S., et al. (1993). The short-term impact of two classroom-based preventive interventions on aggressive and shy behaviors and poor achievement. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 14(3), 317–345.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Duane, T. E., & Bierman, K. L. (2006). The impact of classroom aggression on the development of aggressive behavior problems in children. Development and Psychopathology, 18(2), 471–487.

    Google Scholar 

  • Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 405–432.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Durlak, J. A., & Wells, A. M. (1997). Primary prevention mental health programs for children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. American Journal of Community Psychology, 25(2), 115–152.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dymnicki, A. B., Weissberg, R. P., & Henry, D. B. (2011). Understanding how programs work to prevent overt aggressive behaviors: A meta-analysis of mediators of elementary school-based programs. Journal of School Violence, 10(4), 315–337.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Epstein, M., Atkins, M., Cullinan, D., Kutash, K., & Weaver, R. (2008). Reducing behavior problems in the elementary school classroom: A practice guide. Retrieved from Washington, DC.

  • Eslea, M., Menesni, E., Morita, Y., O’Moore, M., Mora-Merchan, J. A., Pereira, B., et al. (2004). Friendship and loneliness among bullies and victims: Data from seven countries. Aggressive Behavior, 30(1), 71–83.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Farahmand, F. K., Grant, K. E., Polo, A. J., & Duffy, S. N. (2011). School-based mental health and behavioral programs for low-income, urban youth: A systematic and meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 18(4), 372–390.

    Google Scholar 

  • Farrell, A. D., Henry, D. B., & Bettencourt, A. (2013). Methodological challenges examining subgroup differences: Examples from universal school-based youth violence prevention trials. Prevention Science, 14(2), 121–133.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Farrell, A. D., Meyer, A. L., & White, K. S. (2001). Evaluation of responding in peaceful and positive ways (RIPP): A school-based prevention program for reducing violence among urban adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30(4), 451–463. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424jccp3004_02.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Farrington, D. P., Gaffney, H., Lösel, F., & Ttofi, M. M. (2017). Systematic reviews of the effectiveness of developmental prevention programs in reducing delinquency, aggression, and bullying. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 33, 91–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2016.11.003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Flay, B. R., Allred, C. G., & Ordway, N. (2001). Effects of positive action program on achievement and discipline: Two matched-control comparisons. Prevention Science, 2(2), 71–89.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Foster, E. M., Jones, D. E., & Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2005). The high cost of aggression: Public expenditures resulting from conduct disorder. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1767–1772.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frazier, S. L., Formoso, D., Birman, D., & Atkins, M. S. (2008). Closing the research to practice gap: Redefining feasibility. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 15(2), 125–129. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2850.2008.00120.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frey, K. S., Hirschstein, M. K., & Guzzo, B. A. (2000). Second step: Preventing aggression by promoting social competence. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8(2), 102–112. https://doi.org/10.1177/106342660000800206.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frey, K. S., & Strong, Z. H. (2018). Aggression predicts changes in peer victimization that vary by form and function. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46(2), 305–318.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2017). Critique of the National Evaluation of Response to Intervention: A case for simpler frameworks. Exceptional Children, 83(3), 255–268. https://doi.org/10.1177/0014402917693580.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gottfredson, D. C., & Gottfredson, G. D. (2002). Quality of school-based prevention programs: Results from a national survey. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 39(1), 3–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greenberg, M. T., Kusche, C. A., Cook, E. T., & Quamma, J. P. (1995). Promoting emotional competence in school-aged children: The effects of the PATHS curriculum. Development and Psychopathology, 7(1), 117–136.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gresham, F. M., Cohen, S., Gansle, K. A., Noell, G. H., & Rosenblum, S. (1993). Treatment integrity of school-based behavioral intervention studies: 1980–1990. School Psychology Review, 22(2), 254–272.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hankin, A., Hertz, M., & Simon, T. (2011). Impacts of metal detector use in schools: Insights from 15 years of research. Journal of School Health, 81(2), 100–106. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2010.00566.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptional Children, 42(8), 1–14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasto, J., Todd, A. W., et al. (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(3), 133–144. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300709332067.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ialongo, N. S., Werthamer, L., Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Wang, S., & Lin, Y. (1999). Proximal impact of two first-grade preventive interventions for the early risk behaviors for later substance abuse, depression, and antisocial behaviors. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27(5), 599–641.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jimerson, S. R., Burns, M. K., & VamDerHeyden, A. M. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of response to intervention: The science and practice of assessment and intervention. New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lester, S., Lawrence, C., & Ward, C. L. (2017). What do we know about preventing school violence? A systematic review of systematic reviews. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 22(sup1), 187–223.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lewis, T. J., Mitchell, B. S., Bruntmeyer, D. T., & Sugai, G. (2016). School-wide positive behavior support and response to intervention: System similarities, distinctions, and research to date at the universal level of support. In S. Jimmerson, M. Burns, & A. Van Der Heyden (Eds.), Handbook of response to intervention (pp. 703–717). Boston, MA: Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Lipsey, M. W. (2009). The primary factors that characterize effective interventions with juvenile offenders: A meta-analytic overview. Victims and Offenders, 4(2), 124–147. https://doi.org/10.1080/15564880802612573.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lochman, J. E., & Wells, K. C. (2003). Effectiveness of the Coping Power Program and of classroom intervention with aggressive children: Outcomes at 1-year follow-up. Behavior Therapy, 34(4), 493–515. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(03)80032-1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lochman, J. E., Wells, K. C., & Murray, M. J. (2007). The Coping Power Program: Preventive intervention at the middle school transition. In P. H. Tolan, J. Szapocznik, & S. Sambarno (Eds.), Preventing youth substance abuse: Science-based programs for child and adolescents (pp. 185–210). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Low, S., Cook, C. R., Smolkowski, K., & Buntain-Ricklefs, J. (2015). Promoting social–emotional competence: An evaluation of the elementary version of Second Step®. Journal of School Psychology, 53(6), 463–477.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marchbanks, M. P., III, Blake, J. J., Smith, D., Seibert, A. L., Carmichael, D., Booth, E. A., et al. (2014). More than a drop in the bucket: The social and economic costs of dropouts and grade retentions associated with exclusionary discipline. Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk, 5(2), 17.

    Google Scholar 

  • Matjasko, J. L., Vivolo-Kantor, A. M., Massetti, G. M., Holland, K. M., Holt, M. K., & Cruz, J. D. (2012). A systematic meta-review of evaluations of youth violence prevention programs: Common and divergent findings from 25 years of meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17(6), 540–552.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Metropolitan Area Child Study Research Group. (2002). A cognitive-ecological approach to preventing aggression in urban settings: Initial outcomes for high risk children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(1), 179–194. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-006x.70.1.179.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meyer, A. L., & Farrell, A. D. (1998). Social skills training to promote resilience in urban sixth-grade students: One product of an action research strategy to prevent youth violence in high-risk environments. Education and Treatment of Children, 21, 461–488.

    Google Scholar 

  • Musu-Gillette, L., Zhang, A., Wang, K., Zhang, J., & Oudekerk, B. A. (2017). Indicators of school crime and safety: 2016. (NCES 2017-064/NCJ 250650). Washington, DC.

  • Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among U.S. youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285(16), 2094–2100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Newman, L., Wagner, M., Knokey, A.-M., Marder, C., Nagle, K., Shaver, D. et al. (2011). The post-high school outcomes of young adults with disabilities up to 8 years after high school: A report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NTLS2), Menlo Park, CA. Retrieved from http://www.ncser.ed.gov/pubs.

  • Offord, D. R. (2000). Selection of levels of prevention. Addictive Behaviors, 25(6), 833–842. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0306-4603(00)00132-5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Osher, D., Bear, G. G., Sprague, J. R., & Doyle, W. (2010). How can we improve school discipline? Educational Researcher, 39(1), 48–58.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Park-Higgerson, H. K., Perumean-Chaney, S. E., Bartolucci, A. A., Grimley, D. M., & Singh, K. P. (2008). The evaluation of school-based violence prevention programs: A meta-analysis. Journal of School Health, 78(9), 465–479. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2008.00332.x. (quiz 518-420).

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Powers, J. D., Bowen, N. K., Webber, K. C., & Bowen, G. L. (2011). Low effect sizes of evidence-based programs in school settings. Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work, 8(4), 397–415. https://doi.org/10.1080/15433714.2011.534316.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Predy, L., McIntosh, K., Frank, J. L., & Hitchcock, J. (2014). Utility of number and type of office discipline referrals in predicting chronic problem behavior in middle schools. School Psychology Review, 43(4), 472–489. https://doi.org/10.17105/spr-13-0043.1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reid, J. B., Eddy, J. M., Fetrow, R. A., & Stoolmiller, M. (1999). Description and immediate impacts of a preventive intervention for conduct problems. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27(4), 483–518.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Robb, J. A., Sibley, M. H., Pelham, W. E., Jr., Foster, E. M., Molina, B. S. G., Gnagy, E. M., et al. (2011). The estimated annual cost of ADHD to the U.S. education system. School Mental Health, 3(3), 169–177. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-011-9057-6.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Ruhl, K. L., & Hughes, C. A. (1985). The nature and extent of aggression in special education settings serving behaviorally disordered students. Behavioral Disorders, 10, 95–104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schwartz, D., McFadyen-Ketchum, S. A., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (1998). Peer group victimization as a predictor of children’s behavior problems at home and in school. Development and Psychopathology, 10(1), 87–99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shapiro, J. P., Burgoon, J. D., Welker, C. J., & Clough, J. B. (2002). Evaluation of the peacemakers program: School-based violence prevention for students in grades four through eight. Psychology in the Schools, 39(1), 87–100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shernoff, E. S., Mehta, T. G., Atkins, M. S., Torf, R., & Spencer, J. (2011). A qualitative study of the sources of stress and impact of stress among urban teachers. School Mental Health, 3(2), 59–69. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-011-9051-z.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shure, M. B. (2001). I can problem solve (ICPS): An interpersonal cognitive problem solving program for children. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 18(3), 3–14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shure, M. B., & Spivack, G. (1979). Interpersonal cognitive problem solving and primary prevention: Programming for preschool and kindergarten children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 8(2), 89–94. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374417909532894.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sklad, M., Diekstra, R., Ritter, M. D., Ben, J., & Gravesteijn, C. (2012). Effectiveness of school-based universal social, emotional, and behavioral programs: Do they enhance students’ development in the area of skill, behavior, and adjustment? Psychology in the Schools, 49(9), 892–909.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith, B. H., Molina, B. S. G., Massetti, G. M., Waschbusch, D. A., & Pelham, W. E. (2007). School-wide interventions: The foundation of a public health approach to school-based mental health. In S. W. Evans, M. D. Weist, & Z. N. Serpell (Eds.), Advances in school-based mental health interventions: Best practices and program models (Vol. 2, pp. 7-2–7-19). Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stoltz, S., Londen, M. V., Deković, M., Castro, B. O. D., & Prinzie, P. (2012). Effectiveness of individually delivered indicated school-based interventions on externalizing behavior. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 36(5), 381–388. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025412450525.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stoolmiller, M., Eddy, J. M., & Reid, J. B. (2000). Detecting and describing preventive intervention effects in a universal school-based randomized trial targeting delinquent and violent behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(2), 296.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, R. D., Oberle, E., Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2017). Promoting positive youth development through school-based social and emotional learning interventions: A meta-analysis of follow-up effects. Child Development, 88(4), 1156–1171.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang, P., Baker, L. A., Gao, Y., Raine, A., & Lozano, D. I. (2012). Psychopathic traits and physiological responses to aversive stimuli in children aged 9–11 years. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(5), 759–769. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-011-9606-3.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Waschbusch, D. A., Fabiano, G. A., & Pelham, W. E. (2012). Evidence-based practice in child and adolescent disorders. In P. Sturmey & M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of evidence-based practice in clinical psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 27–49). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weare, K., & Nind, M. (2011). Mental health promotion and problem prevention in schools: What does the evidence say? Health Promotion International, 26(Suppl 1), i29–i69. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dar075.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Westling, D. L. (2010). Teachers and challenging behavior: Knowledge, views, and practices. Remedial and Special Education, 31(1), 48–63. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741932508327466.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, S. J., & Lipsey, M. W. (2007). School-based interventions for aggressive and disruptive behavior: Update of a meta-analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33(2 Suppl), S130–S143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2007.04.011.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Wolpert, M., Humphrey, N., Belsky, J., & Deighton, J. (2013). Embedding mental health support in schools: Learning from the Targeted Mental Health in Schools (TaMHS) national evaluation. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 18(3), 270–283.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yeung, A. S., Craven, R. G., Mooney, M., Tracey, D., Barker, K., Power, A., et al. (2016). Positive behavior interventions: The issue of sustainability of positive effects. Educational Psychology Review, 28(1), 145–170.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Daniel A. Waschbusch.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Ethical Approval

Ethical approval is not applicable to this article because it is a review paper; neither human participants nor animals were involved.

Informed Consent

Informed consent is not applicable to this article because it is a review paper; human participants were not involved.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Waschbusch, D.A., Breaux, R.P. & Babinski, D.E. School-Based Interventions for Aggression and Defiance in Youth: A Framework for Evidence-Based Practice. School Mental Health 11, 92–105 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-018-9269-0

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-018-9269-0

Keywords

Navigation