Adverse Family Experiences, Child Mental Health, and Educational Outcomes for a National Sample of Students
- 1.6k Downloads
Exposure to adversity in childhood, including domestic violence, parental mental illness, loss, and poverty, is a known risk factor for long-term physical and mental health problems. This secondary data analysis uses the National Survey of Children’s Health 2011/12 to examine the association between exposure to family adversity and academic outcomes, as mediated by child mental health. The analytic sample included 65,680 children between the ages of six and 17, representative of the US child population. Family adversity, as mediated by child mental health status, was negatively associated with school engagement and positively associated with being retained in grade and being on an Individualized Education Program. Male gender, family economic hardship, living in an unsafe neighborhood, and poor caregiver mental health were additional risk factors. Results suggest the need for improved mental health screening for students who exhibit internalizing and externalizing symptoms.
KeywordsTrauma Mental health Academic achievement School engagement Retention in grade IEP
This project is supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) under Grant Number 1R40MC268250100 “Co-morbid Physical and Mental Health Care Needs for Children and Youth at Risk for Obesity.” This information or content and conclusions are those of the author and should not be construed as the official position or policy of, nor should any endorsements be inferred by HRSA, HHS or the US Government.
- Bethell, C. D., Forrest, C. B., Stumbo, S., Gombojav, N., Carle, A., & Irwin, C. E. (2012). Factors promoting or potentially impeding school success: Disparities and state variations for children with special health care needs. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 16(Suppl 1), S35–S43. doi: 10.1007/s10995-012-0993-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bollen, K. A., & Long, J. S. (1993). Testing structural equation models. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
- Bremner, J. D., Davis, M., Southwick, S. M., Krystal, J. H., & Charney, D. S. (1994). Neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder. In R. S. Pynoos (Ed.), Posttraumatic stress disorder: A clinical review (pp. 43–64). Baltimore: The Sidran Press.Google Scholar
- Caffo, E., & Belaise, C. (2005). Children and adolescents’ psychopathology after trauma: New preventive psychotherapeutic strategies. In K. V. Oxington (Ed.), Psychology of stress (pp. 145–163). Hauppauge: Nova Biomedical Books.Google Scholar
- Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. (2009). Measuring medical home for children and youth: Methods and findings from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs and the National Survey of Children’s Health: A resource manual for child health program leaders, researchers, and analysts [Internet]. http://www.childhealthdata.org/docs/medical-home/mhmanual_withappendices-updated-12-7-10-pdf.pdf.
- Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Deblinger, E. (2006). Treating trauma and traumatic grief in children and adolescents. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- De Bellis, M. D., Hooper, S. R., Spratt, E. G., & Woolley, D. P. (2009). Neuropsychological findings in childhood neglect and their relationships to pediatric PTSD. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15(6), 868–878. doi: 10.1017/S1355617709990464.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dyregrov, A. (2004). Educational consequences of loss and trauma. Educational and Child Psychology, 21(3), 77–84.Google Scholar
- Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Etscheidt, S. (2006). Behavioral intervention plans: Pedagogical and legal analysis of issues. Behavioral Disorders, 31(2), 223–243.Google Scholar
- Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245–258. doi: 10.1016/S0749-3797(98)00017-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hardaway, C. R., Larkby, C. A., & Cornelius, M. D. (2014). Socioemotional adjustment as a mediator of the association between exposure to community violence and academic performance in low-income adolescents. Psychology of Violence, 4(3), 281–293. doi: 10.1037/a0036375.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hertel, R., & Johnson, M. M. (2013). How the traumatic experiences of students manifest in school settings. In E. Rossen, R. Hull, E. Rossen, & R. Hull (Eds.), Supporting and educating traumatized students: A guide for school-based professionals (pp. 23–35). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Humphrey, N., & Wigelsworth, M. (2012). Modeling the factors associated with children’s mental health difficulties in primary school: A multilevel study. School Psychology Review, 41(3), 326–341.Google Scholar
- Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1998). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the Simplis Command Language. Chicago: Scientific Software International.Google Scholar
- Kamphaus, R. W., DiStefano, C., Dowdy, E., Eklund, K., & Dunn, A. R. (2010). Determining the presence of a problem: Comparing two approaches for detecting youth behavioral risk. School Psychology Review, 39(3), 395.Google Scholar
- Kenny, D. A. (2014). Mediation. http://davidakenny.net/cm/mediate.htm - AV.
- Little, R. J. A., & Rubin, D. B. (1987). Statistical analysis with missing data. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Masten, A. S., Roisman, G. I., Long, J. D., Burt, K. B., Obradovic, J., Riley, J. R., et al. (2005). Developmental cascades: linking academic achievement and externalizing and internalizing symptoms over 20 years. Developmental Psychology, 41(5), 733–746. doi: 10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.1683.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- McLaughlin, C., & Clarke, B. (2010). Relational matters: A review of the impact of school experience on mental health in early adolescence. Educational and Child Psychology, 27(1), 91–103.Google Scholar
- Morgan, P. L., Farkas, G., Hillemeier, M. M., Mattison, R., Maczuga, S., Li, H., et al. (2015). Minorities are disproportionately underrepresented in special education: Longitudinal evidence across five disability conditions. Educational Researcher, 44(5), 278–292. doi: 10.3102/0013189X15591157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2012). Mplus user’s guide. Seventh Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services US Department of Education. (2000). A guide to the Individualized Education Program. http://www2.ed.gov/parents/needs/speced/iepguide/iepguide.pdf.
- Park, S., Kim, B.-N., Choi, N.-H., Ryu, J., McDermott, B., Cobham, V., et al. (2014). The effect of persistent posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms on executive functions in preadolescent children witnessing a single incident of death. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 27(3), 241–252. doi: 10.1080/10615806.2013.853049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rossen, E., & Hull, R. (Eds.). (2012). Supporting and educating traumatized students: A guide for school-based professionals. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Scott, B. G., Lapré, G. E., Marsee, M. A., & Weems, C. F. (2014). Aggressive behavior and its associations with posttraumatic stress and academic achievement following a natural disaster. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 43(1), 43–50. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2013.807733.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Smith, E. J., & Harper, S. R. (2015). Disproportionate impact of K-12 school suspension and expulsion on Black students in southern states. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education. https://www.gse.upenn.edu/equity/sites/gse.upenn.edu.equity/files/publications/Smith_Harper_Report.pdf.
- Suldo, S. M., Gormley, M. J., DuPaul, G. J., & Anderson-Butcher, D. (2014). The impact of school mental health on student and school-level academic outcomes: Current status of the research and future directions. School Mental Health, 6(2), 84–98. doi: 10.1007/s12310-013-9116-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- US Department of Education. (2001). Twenty-third annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Washington, DC: US Department of Education.Google Scholar
- US Public Health Service. (2000). Report of the Surgeon General’s Conference on Children’s Mental Health: A national action agenda. Retrieved from Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Valdez, C. R., Lambert, S. F., & Ialongo, N. S. (2011). Identifying patterns of early risk for mental health and academic problems in adolescence: A longitudinal study of urban youth. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 42(5), 521–538. doi: 10.1007/s10578-011-0230-9.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wood, S. J., & Cronin, M. E. (1999). Students with emotional/behavioral disorders and transition planning: What the follow-up studies tell us. Psychology in the Schools, 36(4), 327–345. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6807(199907)36:4<327:AID-PITS6>3.0.CO;2-P.CrossRefGoogle Scholar