School Mental Health

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 44–60 | Cite as

Adverse Family Experiences, Child Mental Health, and Educational Outcomes for a National Sample of Students

  • Michelle V. Porche
  • Darcé M. Costello
  • Myra Rosen-Reynoso
Original Paper

Abstract

Exposure to adversity in childhood, including domestic violence, parental mental illness, loss, and poverty, is a known risk factor for long-term physical and mental health problems. This secondary data analysis uses the National Survey of Children’s Health 2011/12 to examine the association between exposure to family adversity and academic outcomes, as mediated by child mental health. The analytic sample included 65,680 children between the ages of six and 17, representative of the US child population. Family adversity, as mediated by child mental health status, was negatively associated with school engagement and positively associated with being retained in grade and being on an Individualized Education Program. Male gender, family economic hardship, living in an unsafe neighborhood, and poor caregiver mental health were additional risk factors. Results suggest the need for improved mental health screening for students who exhibit internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

Keywords

Trauma Mental health Academic achievement School engagement Retention in grade IEP 

References

  1. Bagdi, A., & Vacca, J. (2005). Supporting early childhood social-emotional well being: The building blocks for early learning and school success. Early Childhood Education Journal, 33(3), 145–150. doi:10.1007/s10643-005-0038-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baskin, T. W., Slaten, C. D., Sorenson, C., Glover-Russell, J., & Merson, D. N. (2010). Does youth psychotherapy improve academically related outcomes? A meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(3), 290–296. doi:10.1037/a0019652.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Becker, K. D., Brandt, N. E., Stephan, S. H., & Chorpita, B. F. (2014). A review of educational outcomes in the children’s mental health treatment literature. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 7(1), 5–23. doi:10.1080/1754730X.2013.851980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bethell, C. D., Forrest, C. B., Stumbo, S., Gombojav, N., Carle, A., & Irwin, C. E. (2012). Factors promoting or potentially impeding school success: Disparities and state variations for children with special health care needs. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 16(Suppl 1), S35–S43. doi:10.1007/s10995-012-0993-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bethell, C. D., Newacheck, P., Hawes, E., & Halfon, N. (2014). Adverse childhood experiences: Assessing the impact on health and school engagement and the mitigating role of resilience. Health Affairs, 33(12), 2106–2115. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0914.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bollen, K. A., & Long, J. S. (1993). Testing structural equation models. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  7. Borofsky, L. A., Kellerman, I., Baucom, B., Oliver, P. H., & Margolin, G. (2013). Community violence exposure and adolescents’ school engagement and academic achievement over time. Psychology Of Violence, 3(4), 381–395. doi:10.1037/a0034121.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boyraz, G., Granda, R., Baker, C. N., Tidwell, L. L., & Waits, J. B. (2015). Posttraumatic stress, effort regulation, and academic outcomes among college students: A longitudinal study. Journal of Counseling Psychology,. doi:10.1037/cou0000102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bremner, J. D., Davis, M., Southwick, S. M., Krystal, J. H., & Charney, D. S. (1994). Neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder. In R. S. Pynoos (Ed.), Posttraumatic stress disorder: A clinical review (pp. 43–64). Baltimore: The Sidran Press.Google Scholar
  10. Burke, N. J., Hellman, J. L., Scott, B. G., Weems, C. F., & Carrion, V. G. (2011). The impact of adverse childhood experiences on an urban pediatric population. Child Abuse and Neglect, 35(6), 408–413.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Busby, D. R., Lambert, S. F., & Ialongo, N. S. (2013). Psychological symptoms linking exposure to community violence and academic functioning in African American adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(2), 250–262. doi:10.1007/s10964-012-9895-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Caffo, E., & Belaise, C. (2005). Children and adolescents’ psychopathology after trauma: New preventive psychotherapeutic strategies. In K. V. Oxington (Ed.), Psychology of stress (pp. 145–163). Hauppauge: Nova Biomedical Books.Google Scholar
  13. Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. (2009). Measuring medical home for children and youth: Methods and findings from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs and the National Survey of Children’s Health: A resource manual for child health program leaders, researchers, and analysts [Internet]. http://www.childhealthdata.org/docs/medical-home/mhmanual_withappendices-updated-12-7-10-pdf.pdf.
  14. Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Deblinger, E. (2006). Treating trauma and traumatic grief in children and adolescents. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  15. Darney, D., Reinke, W. M., Herman, K. C., Stormont, M., & Ialongo, N. S. (2013). Children with co-occurring academic and behavior problems in first grade: Distal outcomes in twelfth grade. Journal of School Psychology, 51(1), 117–128.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Davis, A., Solberg, V. S., de Baca, C., & Gore, T. H. (2014). Use of social emotional learning skills to predict future academic success and progress toward graduation. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 19(3–4), 169–182. doi:10.1080/10824669.2014.972506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. De Bellis, M. D., Hooper, S. R., Spratt, E. G., & Woolley, D. P. (2009). Neuropsychological findings in childhood neglect and their relationships to pediatric PTSD. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15(6), 868–878. doi:10.1017/S1355617709990464.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dutro, E., & Bien, A. C. (2014). Listening to the speaking wound: A trauma studies perspective on student positioning in schools. American Educational Research Journal, 51(1), 7–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dyregrov, A. (2004). Educational consequences of loss and trauma. Educational and Child Psychology, 21(3), 77–84.Google Scholar
  20. Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  21. Etscheidt, S. (2006). Behavioral intervention plans: Pedagogical and legal analysis of issues. Behavioral Disorders, 31(2), 223–243.Google Scholar
  22. Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245–258. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(98)00017-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Forman, S. G., Olin, S. S., Hoagwood, K. E., Crowe, M., & Saka, N. (2009). Evidence-based intervention in schools: Developers’ views of implementation barriers and facilitators. School Mental Health, 1(1), 26–36. doi:10.1007/s12310-008-9002-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59–109. doi:10.3102/00346543074001059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Freeman, P. C. (2014). Prevalence and relationship between adverse childhood experiences and child behavior among young children. Infant Mental Health Journal, 35(6), 544–554. doi:10.1002/imhj.21460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goodman, R. D., Miller, M. D., & West-Olatunji, C. A. (2012). Traumatic stress, socioeconomic status, and academic achievement among primary school students. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(3), 252–259. doi:10.1037/a0024912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grassi-Oliveira, R., & Stein, L. M. (2008). Childhood maltreatment associated with PTSD and emotional distress in low-income adults: The burden of neglect. Child Abuse and Neglect, 32(12), 1089–1094. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.05.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Hamby, S., Finkelhor, D., & Turner, H. (2015). Intervention following family violence: Best practices and helpseeking obstacles in a nationally representative sample of families with children. Psychology of Violence, 5(3), 325–336. doi:10.1037/a0036224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hardaway, C. R., Larkby, C. A., & Cornelius, M. D. (2014). Socioemotional adjustment as a mediator of the association between exposure to community violence and academic performance in low-income adolescents. Psychology of Violence, 4(3), 281–293. doi:10.1037/a0036375.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hertel, R., & Johnson, M. M. (2013). How the traumatic experiences of students manifest in school settings. In E. Rossen, R. Hull, E. Rossen, & R. Hull (Eds.), Supporting and educating traumatized students: A guide for school-based professionals (pp. 23–35). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Hu, L.-T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1–55. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Humphrey, N., & Wigelsworth, M. (2012). Modeling the factors associated with children’s mental health difficulties in primary school: A multilevel study. School Psychology Review, 41(3), 326–341.Google Scholar
  33. Jimerson, S. R., Campos, E., & Greif, J. L. (2003). Toward an understanding of definitions and measures of school engagement and related terms. California School Psychologist, 8, 7–27. doi:10.1007/BF03340893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jimerson, S. R., & Ferguson, P. (2007). A longitudinal study of grade retention: Academic and behavioral outcomes of retained students through adolescence. School Psychology Quarterly, 22(3), 314–339. doi:10.1037/1045-3830.22.3.314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1998). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the Simplis Command Language. Chicago: Scientific Software International.Google Scholar
  36. Kamphaus, R. W., DiStefano, C., Dowdy, E., Eklund, K., & Dunn, A. R. (2010). Determining the presence of a problem: Comparing two approaches for detecting youth behavioral risk. School Psychology Review, 39(3), 395.Google Scholar
  37. Keil, V., & Price, J. M. (2006). Externalizing behavior disorders in child welfare settings: Definition, prevalence, and implications for assessment and treatment. Children and Youth Services Review, 28(7), 761–779. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2005.08.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kenny, D. A. (2014). Mediation. http://davidakenny.net/cm/mediate.htm - AV.
  39. Kingston, D., & Tough, S. (2014). Prenatal and postnatal maternal mental health and school-age child development: A systematic review. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 18(7), 1728–1741. doi:10.1007/s10995-013-1418-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kutash, K., Duchnowski, A. J., & Green, A. L. (2011). School-based mental health programs for students who have emotional disturbances: Academic and social-emotional outcomes. School Mental Health, 3(4), 191–208. doi:10.1007/s12310-011-9062-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lester, L., Waters, S., & Cross, D. (2013). The relationship between school connectedness and mental health during the transition to secondary school: A path analysis. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 23(2), 157–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Little, R. J. A., & Rubin, D. B. (1987). Statistical analysis with missing data. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  43. Masten, A. S., Roisman, G. I., Long, J. D., Burt, K. B., Obradovic, J., Riley, J. R., et al. (2005). Developmental cascades: linking academic achievement and externalizing and internalizing symptoms over 20 years. Developmental Psychology, 41(5), 733–746. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.41.5.733.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Mathews, T., Dempsey, M., & Overstreet, S. (2009). Effects of exposure to community violence on school functioning: The mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(7), 586–591. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2009.04.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. McCoy, D. C., Roy, A. L., & Sirkman, G. M. (2013). Neighborhood crime and school climate as predictors of elementary school academic quality: A cross-lagged panel analysis. American Journal of Community Psychology, 52(1–2), 128–140. doi:10.1007/s10464-013-9583-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. McKinney, C. M., Harris, T. R., & Caetano, R. (2009). Reliability of self-reported childhood physical abuse by adults and factors predictive of inconsistent reporting. Violence and Victims, 24(5), 653–668.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. McLaughlin, C., & Clarke, B. (2010). Relational matters: A review of the impact of school experience on mental health in early adolescence. Educational and Child Psychology, 27(1), 91–103.Google Scholar
  48. Morgan, P. L., Farkas, G., Hillemeier, M. M., Mattison, R., Maczuga, S., Li, H., et al. (2015). Minorities are disproportionately underrepresented in special education: Longitudinal evidence across five disability conditions. Educational Researcher, 44(5), 278–292. doi:10.3102/0013189X15591157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2012). Mplus user’s guide. Seventh Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  50. Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services US Department of Education. (2000). A guide to the Individualized Education Program. http://www2.ed.gov/parents/needs/speced/iepguide/iepguide.pdf.
  51. Pane, J. F., McCaffrey, D. F., Kalra, N., & Zhou, A. J. (2008). Effects of student displacement in Louisiana during the first academic year after the hurricanes of 2005. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 13(2–3), 168–211. doi:10.1080/10824660802350169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Park, S., Kim, B.-N., Choi, N.-H., Ryu, J., McDermott, B., Cobham, V., et al. (2014). The effect of persistent posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms on executive functions in preadolescent children witnessing a single incident of death. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 27(3), 241–252. doi:10.1080/10615806.2013.853049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pintrich, P. R. (2004). A conceptual framework for assessing motivation and self-regulated learning in college students. Educational Psychology Review, 16(4), 385–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Porche, M. V., Fortuna, L. R., Lin, J., & Alegria, M. (2011). Childhood trauma and psychiatric disorders as correlates of school dropout in a national sample of young adults. Child Development, 82(3), 982–998. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01534.x.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pretty, C., O’Leary, D. D., Cairney, J., & Wade, T. J. (2013). Adverse childhood experiences and the cardiovascular health of children: A cross-sectional study. BMC Pediatrics, 13(1), 208.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Reinke, W. M., Herman, K. C., & Ialongo, N. S. (2012). Developing and implementing integrated school-based mental health interventions. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 5(3), 158–160. doi:10.1080/1754730X.2012.707420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Roeser, R. W., Eccles, J. S., & Strobel, K. R. (1998). Linking the study of schooling and mental health: Selected issues and empirical illustrations at the level of the individual. Educational Psychologist, 33(4), 153–176. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep3304_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rossen, E., & Hull, R. (Eds.). (2012). Supporting and educating traumatized students: A guide for school-based professionals. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Santiago, C. D., Kataoka, S. H., Forness, S. R., & Miranda, J. (2014). Mental health services in special education: An analysis of quality of care. Children and Schools, 36(3), 175–182. doi:10.1093/cs/cdu014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Saunders, B. E., & Adams, Z. W. (2014). Epidemiology of traumatic experiences in childhood. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 23(2), 167–184. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2013.12.003.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Scarborough, A. A., & McCrae, J. S. (2008). Maltreated infants: Reported eligibility for Part C and later school-age special education services. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 28(2), 75–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schnurr, M. P., & Lohman, B. J. (2013). Longitudinal impact of toddlers’ exposure to domestic violence. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma, 22(9), 1015–1031. doi:10.1080/10926771.2013.834019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Scott, B. G., Lapré, G. E., Marsee, M. A., & Weems, C. F. (2014). Aggressive behavior and its associations with posttraumatic stress and academic achievement following a natural disaster. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 43(1), 43–50. doi:10.1080/15374416.2013.807733.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Shonkoff, J. P. (2010). Building a new biodevelopmental framework to guide the future of early childhood policy. Child Development, 81(1), 357–367. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01399.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Shonkoff, J. P., Boyce, W. T., & McEwen, B. S. (2009). Neuroscience, molecular biology, and the childhood roots of health disparities building a new framework for health promotion and disease prevention. JAMA, 301(21), 2252–2259. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.754.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Sims, A. J., Boasso, A. M., Burch, B., Naser, S., & Overstreet, S. (2015). School dissatisfaction in a post-disaster environment: The mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Child & Youth Care Forum, 44(4), 583–595. doi:10.1007/s10566-015-9316-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Smith, E. J., & Harper, S. R. (2015). Disproportionate impact of K-12 school suspension and expulsion on Black students in southern states. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education. https://www.gse.upenn.edu/equity/sites/gse.upenn.edu.equity/files/publications/Smith_Harper_Report.pdf.
  68. Suldo, S. M., Gormley, M. J., DuPaul, G. J., & Anderson-Butcher, D. (2014). The impact of school mental health on student and school-level academic outcomes: Current status of the research and future directions. School Mental Health, 6(2), 84–98. doi:10.1007/s12310-013-9116-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Teicher, M. H., Andersen, S. L., Polcari, A., Anderson, C. M., Navalta, C. P., & Kim, D. M. (2003). The neurobiological consequences of early stress and childhood maltreatment. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 27(1–2), 33–44. doi:10.1016/S0149-7634(03)00007-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Tempelaar, W. M., Otjes, C. P., Bun, C. J., Plevier, C. M., van Gastel, W. A., MacCabe, J. H., et al. (2014). Delayed school progression and mental health problems in adolescence: A population-based study in 10,803 adolescents. BMC Psychiatry, 14(1), 244.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Teplin, L. A., Abram, K. M., McClelland, G. M., Dulcan, M. K., & Mericle, A. A. (2002). Psychiatric disorders in youth in juvenile detention. Archives Of General Psychiatry, 59(12), 1133–1143. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.59.12.1133.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Thompson, R., & Whimper, L. A. (2010). Exposure to family violence and reading level of early adolescents. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma, 19(7), 721–733. doi:10.1080/10926771003781347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Turney, K., & Haskins, A. R. (2014). Falling behind? Children’s early grade retention after paternal incarceration. Sociology of Education, 87(4), 241–258. doi:10.1177/0038040714547086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. US Department of Education. (2001). Twenty-third annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Washington, DC: US Department of Education.Google Scholar
  75. US Public Health Service. (2000). Report of the Surgeon General’s Conference on Children’s Mental Health: A national action agenda. Retrieved from Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  76. Valdez, C. R., Lambert, S. F., & Ialongo, N. S. (2011). Identifying patterns of early risk for mental health and academic problems in adolescence: A longitudinal study of urban youth. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 42(5), 521–538. doi:10.1007/s10578-011-0230-9.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Wang, M.-T., & Peck, S. C. (2013). Adolescent educational success and mental health vary across school engagement profiles. Developmental Psychology, 49(7), 1266–1276. doi:10.1037/a0030028.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Weber, D. A., & Reynolds, C. R. (2004). Clinical perspectives on neurobiological effects of psychological trauma. Neuropsychology Review, 14(2), 115–129. doi:10.1023/B:NERV.0000028082.13778.14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Whipple, S. S., Evans, G. W., Barry, R. L., & Maxwell, L. E. (2010). An ecological perspective on cumulative school and neighborhood risk factors related to achievement. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31(6), 422–427. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2010.07.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wood, S. J., & Cronin, M. E. (1999). Students with emotional/behavioral disorders and transition planning: What the follow-up studies tell us. Psychology in the Schools, 36(4), 327–345. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6807(199907)36:4<327:AID-PITS6>3.0.CO;2-P.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wu, W., West, S. G., & Hughes, J. N. (2010). Effect of grade retention in first grade on psychosocial outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(1), 135–152. doi:10.1037/a0016664.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EducationBoston UniversityBostonUSA
  2. 2.Wellesley Centers for WomenWellesley CollegeWellesleyUSA
  3. 3.Institute for Community InclusionUniversity of Massachusetts BostonBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations