Classroom behavior management strategies are effective in reducing impairment and improving functioning in children with or at risk of ADHD. Although these interventions are well established, there is significant concern about the integrity with which teachers implement these strategies. Possible barriers to integrity include limitations in teachers’ knowledge of ADHD and classroom management strategies, limitations in classroom management skills, and beliefs that may interfere with intervention implementation. We hypothesize that these barriers are malleable and can be targeted in school-based consultation programs. In this paper, we describe the development of a multi-component consultation package designed to address teacher knowledge, skills, and beliefs as a mechanism for enhancing intervention implementation integrity and student outcomes. Using a case study design, we examined the hypothesized relationships between the consultation strategies, intervention integrity, and student outcomes. Results provide initial support for the multi-component package and our theory of change. Limitations that will inform continued development of the package are discussed.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.
Allinder, R. M., & Oats, R. G. (1997). Effects of acceptability on teachers’ implementation of curriculum-based measurement and student achievement in mathematics computation. Remedial and Special Education, 18, 113–120.
Amrhein, P. C., Miller, W. R., Yahne, C. E., Palmer, M., & Fulcher, L. (2003). Client commitment language during motivational interviewing predicts drug use outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 862–878.
Barkley, R. A., Murphy, K. R., & Fischer, M. (2008). ADHD in adults: What the science says. New York: Guilford Press.
Bashook, P. G. (2005). Best practices for assessing competence and performance of the behavioral health workforce. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 32, 563–592.
Becker, K. D., Bradshaw, C. P., Domitrovich, C., & Ialongo, N. S. (2013). Coaching teachers to improve implementation of the good behavior game. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 40, 482–493.
Beidas, R. S., & Kendall, P. C. (2010). Training therapists in evidence-based practice: A critical review of studies from a systems-contextual perspective. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 17(1), 1–30.
Blank, L., Peters, J., Pickvance, S., Wilford, J., & Macdonald, E. (2008). A systematic review of the factors which predict return to work for people suffering episodes of poor mental health. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 18, 27–34.
Bradshaw, C. P., Pas, E. T., Goldweber, A., Rosenberg, M., & Leaf, P. J. (2012). Integrating school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports with tier 2 coaching to student support teams: The PBISplus model. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 5, 177–193. doi:10.1080/1754730X.2012.707429.
Burns, M. K., Jacob, S., & Wagner, A. R. (2008). Ethical and legal issues associated with using response-to-intervention to assess learning disabilities. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 263–279.
Cappella, E., Hamre, B. K., Kim, H. Y., Henry, D. B., Frazier, S. L., Atkins, M. S., & Schoenwald, S. K. (2012). Teacher consultation and coaching within mental health practice: Classroom and child effects in urban elementary schools. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80, 597.
Carroll, K. M., & Nuro, K. F. (2002). One size cannot fit all: A stage model for psychotherapy manual development. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9 396–406.
Codding, R. S., Feinberg, A. B., Dunn, E. K., & Pace, G. M. (2005). Effects of immediate performance feedback on implementation of behavior support plans. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 205–219.
DiPerna, J. C., & Elliott, S. N. (2000). Academic Competence Evaluation Scale. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
DuPaul, G. J., Rapport, M. D., & Perriello, L. M. (1991). Teacher ratings of academic skills: The development of the Academic Performance Rating Scale. School Psychology Review, 20, 284–300.
Durlak, J. A., & DuPre, E. P. (2008). Implementation matters: A review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 327–350.
Epstein, M., Atkins, M., Culinan, D., Kutash, K., & Weaver, R. (2008). Reducing behavior problems in the elementary school classroom. IES Practice Guide. (NCEE 2008-012) U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Erchul, W. P. (2013). Treatment integrity enhancement via performance feedback conceptualized as an exercise in social influence. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 23, 300–306.
Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, W. E., Jr, Waschbusch, D. A., Gnagy, E. M., Lahey, B. B., Chronis, A. M., & Burrows-MacLean, L. (2006). A practical measure of impairment: Psychometric properties of the impairment rating scale in samples of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and two school-based samples. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 369–385.
Fabiano, G. A., Vujnovic, R. K., Pelham, W. E., Waschbusch, D. A., Massetti, G. M., Pariseau, M. E., et al. (2010). Enhancing the effectiveness of special educational programming for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using a daily report card. School Psychology Review, 39, 219–239.
Gable, R. A., Hester, P. H., Rock, M. L., & Hughes, K. G. (2009). Back to basics: Rules, praise, ignoring, and reprimands revisited. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44, 195–205.
Gilbertson, D., Witt, J. C., Singletary, L. L., & VanDerHeyden, A. (2007). Supporting teacher use of interventions: Effects of response dependent performance feedback on teacher implementation of a math intervention. Journal of Behavioral Education, 16, 311–326.
Girio, E. L., & Owens, J. S. (2009). Teacher acceptability of evidence-based and promising treatments for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. School Mental Health, 1, 16–25.
Guskey, T. R. (2002). Professional development and teacher change. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 8, 381–391.
Hamre, B. K., Pianta, R. C., Burchinal, M., Field, S., LoCasale-Crouch, J., Downer, J. T., & Scott-Little, C. (2012). A course on effective teacher–child interactions effects on teacher beliefs, knowledge, and observed practice. American Educational Research Journal, 49, 88–123.
Han, S., & Weiss, B. (2005). Sustainability of teacher implementation of school-based mental health programs. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 665–679.
Hepperlen, T. M., Clay, D. L., Henly, G. A., Barke, C. R., Hehperlen, T. M., & Clay, D. L. (2002). Measuring teacher attitudes and expectations toward students with ADHD: Development of the test of knowledge about ADHD (KADD). Journal of Attention Disorders, 5, 133–142.
Jones, H. A., & Chronis-Tuscano, A. (2008). Efficacy of teacher in-service training for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 45, 918–929.
Kratochwill, T. R., Elliott, S. N., & Busse, R. T. (1995). Behavior consultation: A five-year evaluation of consultant and client outcomes. School Psychology Quarterly, 10, 87.
Lee, J., Frey, A. J., Walker, H. M., Golly, A., Seeley, J. R., Small, J. W., & Feil, E. G. (2014). Motivational interviewing in support of teacher behavior change. In E. McNamara (Ed.), Motivational interviewing with children and young people II: Issues and further applications (pp. 83–102). Hatfield: Positive Behaviour Management.
Link, B. G., & Phelan, J. C. (2001). Conceptualizing stigma. Annual Review of Sociology, 27, 363–385.
Long, A. C. J., & Maynard, B. R. (2014). Treatment integrity as adult behavior change: A review of models. In L. M. H. Sanetti & T. R. Kratochwill (Eds.), Treatment integrity: A foundation for evidence-based practice in applied psychology (pp. 55–78). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Miller, G. E. (1990). The assessment of clinical skills/competence/performance. Academic Medicine, 65, S63–S67.
Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2012). Motivational interviewing: Helping people change. New York: Guilford Press.
Mixon, C. S., Egan, T., Dawson, A. E., Brown, V. G., Slavec, J., Coles, E. K., Evans, S., & Owens, J. S. (2014, November). Development and validation of a measure of teacher’s knowledge and application of behavioral principles to the classroom setting. Poster accepted for presentation at the annual convention for the association for behavioral and cognitive therapies, Philadelphia, PA.
Moyers, T. B., & Martin, T. (2006). Therapist influence on change language during motivational interviewing sessions. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 30, 245–252.
National Center on Response to Intervention. (2010). Essential components of RTI—A closer look at response to intervention. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Response to Intervention.
Noell, G., Witt, J., Gilbertson, D., Ranier, D., & Freeland, J. (1997). Increasing teacher intervention implementation in general education settings through consultation and performance feedback. School Psychology Quarterly, 12, 77–88.
Owens, J. S., Coles, E. K., & Evans, S. W. (2014, September). The role of teacher knowledge, skills, and beliefs in the implementation of classroom management skills. Presentation at the annual school mental health research summit, Pittsburgh, PA.
Owens, J. S., Holdaway, A. S., Zoromski, A. K., Evans, S. W., Himawan, L. K., Girio-Herrera, E., & Murphy, C. E. (2012). Incremental benefits of a daily report card intervention over time for youth with disruptive behavior. Behavior Therapy, 43, 848–861.
Pelham, W. E., Jr, Gnagy, E. M., Greenslade, K. E., & Milich, R. (1992). Teacher ratings of DSM-III-R symptoms for the disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 210–218.
Pelham, W. E., Greiner, A. R., & Gnagy, E. M. (2008). Student behavior teacher response observation code manual. Unpublished manual.
Perepletchikova, F. (2009). Treatment integrity in treatment outcome research: Adequacy of procedures, associated factors, implications for research and practice, guidelines and recommendations. Saarbrücken: Lambert Academic.
Pfiffner, L. J., O’Leary, S. G., Rosen, L. A., & Sanderson, W. C. (1985). A comparison of the effects of continuous and intermittent response cost and reprimands in the classroom. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 14, 348–352.
Power, T. J., Hess, L., & Bennett, D. (1995). The acceptability of interventions for ADHD among elementary and middle school teachers. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 16, 238–243.
Prochaska, J. O., Johnson, S., & Lee, P. (2009). The transtheoretical model of behavior change. In S. A. Shumaker, J. K. Ockene, & K. A. Riekert (Eds.), The handbook of health behavior change (3rd ed., pp. 59–83). New York, NY: Springer.
Reinke, W. M., Herman, K. C., Darney, D., Pitchford, J., Becker, K., Domitrovich, C., & Ialongo, N. (2012). Using the classroom check-up model to support implementation of PATHS to PAX. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 5, 220–232.
Roe, R. A. (2002). What makes a competent psychologist? European Psychologist, 7, 192–202.
Sanetti, L. M. H., Collier-Meek, M. A., Long, A. C. J., Kim, J., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2014). Using implementation planning to increase teachers’ adherence and quality behavior support plans. Psychology in the Schools, 51, 879–895.
Sanetti, L. M., & Fallon, L. M. (2011). Treatment integrity assessment: How estimates of adherence, quality, and exposure influence interpretation of implementation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 21, 209–232.
Sanetti, L., Fallon, L. M., & Collier-Meek, M. A. (2013). Increasing teacher treatment integrity through performance feedback provided by school personnel. Psychology in the Schools, 50, 134–150. doi:10.1002/pits.21664.
Sanetti, L. M. H., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2009). Treatment integrity assessment in the schools: An evaluation of the treatment integrity planning protocol. School Psychology Quarterly, 24, 24.
Schnoes, C., Reid, R., Wagner, M., & Marder, C. (2006). ADHD among students receiving special education services: A national survey. Exceptional Children, 72, 483–496.
Solomon, B. G., Klein, S. A., & Politylo, B. C. (2012). The effect of performance feedback on teachers’ treatment integrity: A meta-analysis of the single-case literature. School Psychology Review, 41, 160–175.
Stuart, G., Tondora, J., & Hoge, M. (2004). Evidence-based teaching practice: Implications for behavioral health. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 32, 107–130.
Tschannen-Moran, M., Woolfolk Hoy, A., & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure. Review of Educational Research, 68, 202–248. doi:10.2307/1170754.
Vannest, K. J., Davis, J. L., Davis, C. R., Mason, B. A., & Burke, M. D. (2010). Effective intervention for behavior with a daily behavior report card: A meta-analysis. School Psychology Review, 39, 654–672.
Vujnovic, R. K., Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, W. E., Greiner, A., Waschbusch, D. A., Gera, S., Linke, S., Gormley, M., & Buck, M. (2014). The Student Behavior Teacher Response (SBTR) System: Preliminary psychometric properties of an observation system to assess teachers’ use of effective behavior management strategies in preschool classrooms. Education and Treatment of Children, 37, 323–346.
Wechsler, D., & Hsiao-pin, C. (2011). WASI-II: Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. London: Pearson.
Weller, E. B., Weller, R. A., Fristad, M. A., Rooney, M. T., & Schecter, J. (2000). Children’s interview for psychiatric syndromes (ChIPS). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 76–84.
Witt, J. C., Noell, G. H., LaFleur, L. H., & Mortenson, B. P. (1997). Teacher use of interventions in general education settings: Measurement and analysis of the independent variable. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 693–696.
Funding for this study was provided by the Institute of Education Sciences to Julie S. Owens, Erika K. Coles and Steven W. Evans. We extend our appreciation to the participating teachers and families. We are also grateful for the consultation provided by Dr. Ann Schulte and Dr. Andy Frey throughout the development and implementation of the project.
About this article
Cite this article
Coles, E.K., Owens, J.S., Serrano, V.J. et al. From Consultation to Student Outcomes: The Role of Teacher Knowledge, Skills, and Beliefs in Increasing Integrity in Classroom Management Strategies. School Mental Health 7, 34–48 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-015-9143-2
- Classroom intervention