The Organizational Health of Urban Elementary Schools: School Health and Teacher Functioning
- 625 Downloads
This study examined the factor structure of the Organizational Health Inventory-Elementary version (OHI-E; Hoy et al. in Open schools/healthy schools: measuring organizational climate. Sage, Beverly Hills, CA, 1991) in a sample of 203 teachers working in 19 high-poverty, urban schools and the association of organizational school health with teacher efficacy, teacher stress, and job satisfaction. Results indicated a similar factor structure of the OHI-E as compared with the population of schools in the original sample (Hoy et al. in Open schools/healthy schools: measuring organizational climate. Sage, Beverly Hills, CA, 1991), and that specific components of organizational health, such as a positive learning environment, are associated with teacher efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. Overall, teachers’ relations with their peers, their school leadership, and their students appear especially critical in high-poverty, urban schools. Recommendations for research and practice related to improving high-poverty, urban schools are presented.
KeywordsOrganizational school health Urban schools Teacher efficacy Teacher stress Teacher job satisfaction
The primary support for this manuscript was provided by NIMH grants R01 MH 073749 (Atkins, PI), 1P20MH0784458 (Atkins, PI), NIDA grant 5 T32 DA007293 (R. Mermelstein, PI), NIMH R01 MH629591 (Atkins, PI) and NIMH R01 MH56491 (Atkins, PI).
- Atkins, M. S., Frazier, S. L., Birman, D., Adil, J. A., Jackson, M., Graczyk, P. A., et al. (2006). School-based mental health services for children living in high poverty urban communities. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 33(2), 146–159. doi: 10.1007/s10488-006-0031-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Atkins, M. S., Frazier, S. L., Leathers, S. J., Graczyk, P. A., Talbott, E., Jakobsons, L., et al. (2008). Teacher key opinion leaders and mental health consultation in low-income urban schools. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(5), 905–908. doi: 10.1037/a0013036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Atkins, M. S., Frazier, S. L., Marinez-Lora, A., Birman, D., Gibbons, R., & Mehta et al. (2005). Mental health services and predictors of learning urban schools. NIMH R01 grant (R01MH073749).Google Scholar
- Blue-Banning, M., Summers, J. A., Frankland, H. C., Nelson, L. L., & Beegle, G. (2004). Dimensions of family and professional partnerships: Constructive guidelines for collaboration. Exceptional Children, 70(2), 167–184. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=11924644&site=ehost-live.Google Scholar
- Boyd, W., & Shouse, R. (1997). The problems and promise of urban schools. In H. Walberg, O. Reyes, & R. Weissberg (Eds.), Children and youth: Interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 141–165). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Bradshaw, C. P., Koth, C. W., Bevans, K. B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). The impact of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462–473. doi: 10.1037/a0012883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bryk, A. S., & Schneider, B. (2002). Trust in schools: A core resource for improvement. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Cappella, E., Frazier, S. L., Atkins, M. S., Schoenwald, S. K., & Glisson, C. (2008). Enhancing schools’ capacity to support children in poverty: An ecological model of school-based mental health services. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 35(5), 395–409. doi: 10.1007/s10488-008-0182-y.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cheek, J. R., Bradley, L. J., Parr, G., & Lan, W. (2003). Using music therapy techniques to treat teacher burnout. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 25(3), 204. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=10308525&site=ehost-live.
- Esposito, C. (1999). Learning in urban blight: School climate and its effect on the school performance of urban, minority, low-income children. School Psychology Review. Special Issue: Beginning school ready to learn: Parental involvement and effective educational programs, 28(3), 365–377.Google Scholar
- Fisher, D. L., & Fraser, B. J. (1982). Validity and use of the classroom environment scale. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 5, 261–271.Google Scholar
- Glisson, C., Landsverk, J., Schoenwald, S., Kelleher, K., Hoagwood, K. E., Mayberg, S., et al. (2008). Assessing the organizational social context (OSC) of mental health services: Implications for research and practice. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research. Special Issue: Improving Mental Health Services, 35(1–2), 98–113. doi: 10.1007/s10488-007-0148-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Halpin, A. W., & Croft, D. B. (1963). The organizational climate of schools. Chicago: Midwest Administration Center of the University of Chicago.Google Scholar
- Hargrove, T., Walker, B. L., & Huber, R. A. (2004). No teacher left behind: Supporting teachers as they implement standards-based reform in a test-based education environment. Education, 124(3), 567–572. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eft&AN=507903147&site=ehost-live.
- Hoy, W. K., Hannum, J., & Tschannen-Moran, M. (1998). Organizational climate and student achievement: A parsimonious and longitudinal View. Journal of School Leadership, 8(4), 336–359.Google Scholar
- Hoy, W. K., & Miskel, C. G. (1987). Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice. New York, NY: Random House.Google Scholar
- Hoy, W. K., & Tarter, C. J. (1997). The road to open and healthy schools: A handbook for change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
- Hoy, W. K., Tarter, C. J., & Kottkamp, R. B. (1991). Open schools/healthy schools: Measuring organizational climate. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Kappa, P. D. (1980). Why do some urban schools succeed? The Phi Delta Kappa study of exceptional urban elementary schools. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa.Google Scholar
- McKay, M. M., Atkins, M. S., Hawkins, T., Brown, C., & Lynn, C. J. (2003). Inner-city African American parental involvement in children’s schooling: Racial socialization and social support from the parent community. American Journal of Community Psychology, 32(1/2), 107–114. doi: 10.1023/A:1025655109283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Miles, M. B. (1965). Planned change and organizational health: Figure and ground. In R. O. Carlson, A. Gallaher, M. B. Miles, R. J. Pellegrin, & E. M. Rogers (Eds.), Change processes in the public schools (pp. 11–34). Eugene, OR: The Center for the Advanced Study of Educational Administration, University of Oregon.Google Scholar
- Office of Special Education Programs. (2005). School-wide positive behavior support: Implementers’ blueprint and self-assessment. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon. Retrieved from http://www.osepideasthatwork.org/toolkit/pdf/SchoolwideBehaviorSupport.pdf.
- Parsons, T. (1967). Some ingredients of a general theory of formal organization. In A. W. Halpin (Ed.), Administrative theory in education (pp. 40–72). New York, NY: Macdan.Google Scholar
- Pelsma, D. M., Richard, G. V., Harrington, R. G., & Burry, J. M. (1989). The quality of teacher work life survey: A measure of teacher stress and job satisfaction. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 21(4), 165–176.Google Scholar
- Ringeisen, H., Henderson, K., & Hoagwood, K. (2003). Context matters: Schools and the “research to practice gap” in children’s mental health. School Psychology Review, 32(2), 153–168.Google Scholar
- Taylor, D. L., & Tashakkori, A. (1995). Decision participation and school climate as predictors of job satisfaction and teachers’ sense 63(3), 217. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=tfh&AN=9509266042&site=ehost-live.