Aber, J. L., Brown, J. L., & Jones, S. M. (2003). Developmental trajectories toward violence in middle childhood: Course, demographic differences, and response to school-based intervention. Developmental Psychology,
Achenbach, T. M. (2006). As others see us: Clinical and research implications of cross-informant correlations for psychopathology. Psychological Science,
Adler, P. A., & Adler, P. (1998). Peer power: Preadolescent culture and identity. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ang, R., & Hughes, J. (2001). Differential benefits of skills training with antisocial youth based on group composition: A meta-analytic investigation. School Psychology Review,
Arsenio, W. F., & Lemerise, E. A. (2001). Varieties of childhood bullying: Values, emotion processes, and social competence. Social Development,
Bandura, A. (1983). Psychological mechanisms of aggression. In R. G. Green & E. I. Donnerstein (Eds.), Aggression: Theoretical and empirical views (Vol. 1, pp. 1–40). New York: Academic.
Barrett, K., & Campos, J. (1987). Perspectives on emotional development II: A functionalist approach to emotions. In J. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development (2nd ed., pp. 555–578). New York: Wiley.
Battistich, V., Solomon, D., Watson, M., & Schaps, E. (1997). Caring school communities. Educational Psychologist,
Battistich, V., Solomon, D., Watson, M., Solomon, J., & Schaps, E. (1989). Effects of an elementary school program to enhance prosocial behavior on children’s cognitive social problem-solving skills and strategies. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,
Biglan, A., Mrazek, P. J., Carnine, D., & Flay, B. R. (2003). The integration of research and practice in the prevention of youth problem behaviors. American Psychologist,
Boivin, M., Dodge, K. A., & Coie, J. D. (1995). Individual-group behavioral similarity and peer status in experimental play groups of boys: The social misfit revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Bukowski, W. M., & Sippola, L. K. (1996). Friendship and morality. In W. M. Bukowski & A. F. Newcomb (Eds.), The company they keep: Friendship in childhood and adolescence (pp. 238–261). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cairns, R. B., Cairns, B. D., Neckerman, H. J., Gest, S. D., & Gariépy, J. L. (1988). Social networks and aggressive behavior: Peer support or peer rejection? Developmental Psychology,
Campos, J., Mumme, D., Kermoian, R., & Campos, R. (1994). A functionalist perspective on the nature of emotion. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development,
Cappella, E., & Weinstein, R. (2006). The prevention of social aggression among girls. Social Development,
Caprara, G. V., Barbanelli, C., Pastorelli, C., Bandura, A., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2000). Prosocial foundations of children’s academic achievement. Psychological Science,
Card, N. A., Stucky, B. D., Sawalani, G. M., & Little, T. D. (2008). Direct and indirect aggression during childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic review of gender differences, intercorrelations, and relations to maladjustment. Child Development,
Catherine, N., & Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (2011). Children’s perceptions and comforting strategies to infant crying: Relations to age, sex, and empathy-related responding. British Journal of Developmental Psychology,
29, 524–551. doi:10.1348/026151010X521475.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Cohen, J. (Ed.). (2001). Caring classrooms/intelligent schools: The social emotional education of young children. New York: Teachers College Press.
Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1988). Multiple sources of data on social behavior and social status in the school: A cross-age comparison. Child Development,
Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1999). Initial impact of the Fast Track Prevention Trial for conduct problems: II. Classroom effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
Consortium on the School-Based Promotion of Social Competence. (1996). The school-based promotion of social competence: Theory, research, practice, and policy. In R. J. Haggerty, L. R. Sherrod, N. Garmezy, & M. Rutter (Eds.), Stress, risk, and resilience in children and adolescents: Processes, mechanisms, and interventions (pp. 268–316). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (1979). Quasi-experimentation: Design and analysis issues in field settings. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Cook, T. D., Murphy, R. F., & Hunt, H. D. (2000). Comer’s School Development Program in Chicago: A theory-based evaluation. American Educational Research Journal, 37, 535–597.
Cote, S., Vaillancourt, T., Farhat, A., LeBlanc, J. C., Nagin, D., & Tremblay, R. (2006). The development of physical aggression from toddlerhood to pre-adolescence: A nation wide longitudinal study of Canadian children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,
Crick, N. R. (1996). The role of overt aggression, relational aggression, and prosocial behavior in the prediction of children’s future social adjustment. Child Development,
Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1999). ‘Superiority’ is in the eye of the beholder: A comment on Sutton, Smith, and Swettenham. Social Development,
Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1995). Social aggression, gender, and social psychological adjustment. Child Development,
Damon, W. (2004). What is positive youth development? Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,
Damon, W., & Gregory, A. (2003). Bringing in a new era in the field of youth development. In R. M. Lerner & P. L. Benson (Eds.), Developmental assets and asset-building communities: Implications for research, policy, and practice (pp. 47–64). New York: Kluwer/Plenum.
Dane, A. V., & Schneider, B. H. (1998). Program integrity in primary and early secondary prevention: Are implementation effects out of control? Clinical Psychology Review,
Davis, M. H. (1983). Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Denham, S. A. (1998). Emotional development in young children. New York: Guilford.
Denham, S. A., & Burton, R. (1996). A social-emotional intervention program for at-risk four-year-olds. Journal of School Psychology,
Dodge, K. A., & Coie, J. D. (1987). Social-information processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children’s peer groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Domitrovich, C. E., & Greenberg, M. T. (2000). The study of implementation: Current findings from effective programs that prevent mental disorders in school-age children. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation,
Donner, A., & Klar, N. (2000). Design and analysis of cluster randomized trials in health research. New York: Oxford University Press.
Durlak, J. A., & DuPre, E. P. (2008). Implementation matters: A review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology,
Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). Enhancing students’ social and emotional development promotes success in school: Results of a meta-analysis. Child Development,
Dusenbury, L., Brannigan, R., Hansen, W. B., Walsh, J., & Falco, M. (2005). Quality of implementation: Developing measures crucial to understanding the diffusion of preventive interventions. Health Education Research, 20, 308–313.
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & Spinrad, T. (2006). Prosocial development. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 646–718). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Eisenberg, N., & Miller, P. A. (1987). The relation of empathy to prosocial and related behaviors. Psychological Bulletin,
Emde, R. N., Osofsky, J. D., & Butterfield, P. M. (1993). The IFEEL pictures: A new instrument for interpreting emotions. Madison, WI: International Universities Press.
Fabes, R., Eisenberg, N., Nyman, M., & Michelieu, Q. (1991). Children’s appraisals of others’ spontaneous emotional reactions. Developmental Psychology,
Farmer, T. W., & Xie, H. (2007). Aggression and school social dynamics: The good, the bad, and the ordinary. Journal of School Psychology,
Feshbach, N. D. (1979). Empathy training: A field study in affective education. In S. Feshbach & A. Fraczek (Eds.), Aggression and behaviors change: Biological and social processes (pp. 234–249). New York: Praeger.
Fish, M., Stifter, C. A., & Belsky, J. (1991). Conditions of continuity and discontinuity in infant negative emotionality: Newborn to five months. Child Development,
Fonagy, P., Twemlow, S. W., Vernberg, E. M., Nelson, J. M., Dill, E. J., Little, T. D., et al. (2009). A cluster randomized controlled trial of child-focused psychiatric consultation and a school systems-focused intervention to reduce aggression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,
Gordon, M. (2000). Roots of Empathy: Training manual. Available from the Roots of Empathy, www.Rootsofempathy.org
Gordon, M. (2001). Roots of Empathy: Training manual. Available from the Roots of Empathy, www.Rootsofempathy.org
Gordon, M. (2005). Roots of Empathy: Changing the world child by child. Toronto, ON: Thomas Allen.
Greenberg, M. T. (2004). Current and future challenges in school-based prevention: The researcher perspective. Prevention Science,
Greenberg, M. T. (2010). School-based prevention: Current status and future challenges. Effective Education,
Greenberg, M. T., Kusché, C. A., Cook, E. T., & Quamma, J. P. (1995). Promoting emotional competence in school-aged children: The effects of the PATHS curriculum. Development and Psychopathology,
Gresham, F. M., Cook, C. R., Crews, S. D., & Kern, L. (2004). Social skills training for children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders: Validity considerations and future directions. Behavioral Disorders,
Grossman, D. C., Neckerman, H. J., Koepsell, T. D., Liu, P. Y., Asher, K. N., Beland, K., et al. (1997). The effectiveness of a violence prevention curriculum among children in elementary school. Journal of the American Medical Association,
Hay, D. F. (1994). Prosocial development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,
Hoffman, M. L. (1978). Empathy, its development and prosocial implications. In C. B. Keasy (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation, Vol. 25, pp. 169–218.
Huebner, E., & Gilman, R. (2003). Toward a focus on positive psychology in school psychology. School Psychology Quarterly,
Hymel, S., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Miller, L. D. (2007). Reading, ‘Riting, ‘Rithmetic and relationships: Considering the social side of education. Exceptionality Education Canada,
Izard, C. (2002). Translating emotion theory and research into preventive interventions. Psychological Bulletin,
Izard, C. E., Fine, S., Mostow, A., Trentacosta, C., & Campbell, J. (2002). Emotional processes in normal and abnormal development and preventive intervention. Developmental and Psychopathology,
Jones, S. M., Brown, J. L., & Aber, J. L. (2011). Two-year impacts of a universal school-based social-emotional and literacy intervention: An experiment in translational developmental research. Child Development,
82, 533–554. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01560.
Joyce, B., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development (3rd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Kendall, G., Schonert-Reichl, K., Smith, V., Jacoby, P., Austin, R., Stanley, F., et al. (2006). The evaluation of the “Roots of Empathy” in Western Australia 2005. A report written for the Department of Education and Training, Western Australia, Perth: Telethon Health Research Institute.
Ladd, G. W., & Profilet, S. M. (1996). The Child Behavior Scale: A teacher-report measure of young children’s aggressive, withdrawn, and prosocial behaviors. Developmental Psychology,
Ladd, G. W., & Troop-Gordon, W. (2003). The role of chronic peer difficulties in the development of children’s psychological adjustment problems. Child Development,
Lagerspetz, K. M. J., Bjorkqvist, K., & Peltonen, T. (1988). Is indirect aggression typical of females? Gender differences in aggressiveness in 11 to 12 year old children. Aggressive Behavior,
Leff, S. S., Hoffman, J. A., & Lakin Gullan, R. (2009). Intervention integrity: New paradigms and applications. School Mental Health,
Lewis, M., & Michalson, L. (1983). Children’s emotions and moods. New York: Plenum Press.
Lillehoj, C. J., Griffin, K. W., & Spoth, R. (2004). Program provider and observer ratings of school-based preventive intervention implementation: Agreement and relation to youth outcomes. Health Education & Behavior, 31, 242–257.
Lösel, F., & Beelmann, A. (2003). Effects of child skills training in preventing antisocial behavior: A systematic review of randomized evaluations. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences,
Masten, A. S., & Motti-Stefanidi, F. (2009). Understanding and promoting resilience in children: Promotive and protective processes in schools. In B. Gutkin & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), The handbook of school psychology. New York: Wiley.
Murray, A. D. (1979). Infant crying as an elicitor of parental behavior: An examination of two models. Psychological Bulletin,
Murray-Close, D., Ostrov, J. M., & Crick, N. R. (2007). A short-term longitudinal study of growth of relational aggression during middle childhood: Associations with gender, friendship intimacy, and internalizing problems. Development and Psychopathology,
19, 187–203. doi:10.1017/S0954579407070101.
Nantel-Vivier, A., Kokko, K., Caprara, G. V., Pastorelli, C., Gerbino, M. G., Paciello, M., et al. (2009). Prosocial development from childhood to adolescence: A multi-informant perspective with Canadian and Italian longitudinal studies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,
50, 590–598. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.02039.
Neal, J. W. (2010). Social aggression and social position in middle childhood and early adolescence: Burning bridges or building them? Journal of Early Adolescence,
Noddings, N. (1992). The challenge to care in schools: An alternative approach to education. New York: Teachers College Press.
Oakley, A., Strange, V., Bonnell, C., Allen, E., & Stephenson, J. (2006). Health services research: Process evaluations in randomised control trials of complex interventions. British Medical Journal,
Oberle, E., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Thomson, K. (2010). Understanding the link between social and emotional well-being and peer relations in early adolescence: Gender-specific predictors of peer acceptance. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,
Parkhurst, J., & Asher, S. R. (1992). Peer rejection in middle school: Subgroup differences in behavior, loneliness, and interpersonal concerns. Developmental Psychology,
Pelligrini, A. D., & Long, J. D. (2002). A longitudinal study of bullying, dominance, and victimization during the transition from primary school through secondary school. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 20, 259–280.
Poulin, F., & Boivin, M. (2000). Reactive and proactive aggression: Evidence of a two-factor model. Psychological Assessment,
12, 115–122. doi:10.1037/1040-35220.127.116.11.
Raudenbush, S. W. (1997). Statistical analysis and optimal design for cluster randomized trials. Psychological Methods,
Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Resnicow, K., Davis, M., Smith, M., Lazarus-Yaroch, A., Baranowski, T., Baranowskii, J., et al. (1998). How best to measure implementation of school health curricula: A comparison of three measures. Health Education Research, 13, 239–250.
Rubin, K. H., Coplan, R. J., Fox, N. A., & Calkins, S. D. (1995). Emotionality, emotion regulation, and preschoolers’ social adaptation. Development and Psychopathology,
Saarni, C. (1999). The development of emotional competence. New York: Guilford.
Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (1993). Empathy and social relationships in adolescents with behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders,
Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (1999). Moral reasoning during early adolescence: Links with peer acceptance, friendship, and social behaviors. Journal of Early Adolescence,
Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Oberle, E. (2011). Teaching empathy to children: Theoretical and empirical considerations and implications for practice. In B. Weber & E. Marsal (Eds.), “The politics of empathy” New interdisciplinary perspectives on an ancient phenomenon. Berlin, Germany: Lit Verlag.
Schulte, A. C., Easton, J. E., & Parker, J. (2009). Advances in treatment integrity research: Multidisciplinary perspectives on the conceptualization, measurement, and enhancement of treatment integrity. School Psychology Review,
Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology. American Psychologist,
Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2002). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Shipman, K., Zeman, J., Penza, S., & Champion, K. (2000). Emotion management skills in sexually maltreated and nonmaltreated girls: A developmental psychopathology perspective. Development and Psychopathology,
Slavin, R. E. (2008). Perspectives on evidence-based research in education. Educational Researcher,
Staub, E. (1988). The evolution of caring and nonaggressive persons and societies. Journal of Social Issues,
Staub, E. (2003). Notes on cultures of violence, cultures of caring and peace, and the fulfillment of basic human needs. Political Psychology,
Stoolmiller, M., Eddy, M. J., & Reid, J. B. (2000). Detecting and describing preventive intervention effects in a universal school-based randomized trial targeting delinquent and violent youth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
Sutton, J., Smith, P. K., & Swettenham, J. (1999). Social cognition and bullying: Social inadequacy or skilled manipulation? British Journal of Developmental Psychology,
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Computer-assisted research design and analysis. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Thomas, D. R., & Zumbo, B. D. (2011). Difference scores from the point of view of reliability and repeated-measures ANOVA: In defence of difference scores for data analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement. doi:10.1177/0013164411409929.
Tolan, P. H., Guerra, N. G., & Kendall, P. C. (1995). A developmental-ecological perspective on antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: Toward a unified risk and intervention framework. Special Section: Prediction and prevention of child and adolescent antisocial behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
Tregebov, R. (1993). Sasha and the wiggly tooth. Toronto, ON: Second Story Press.
Tremblay, R. E. (2000). The development of aggressive behavior during childhood: What have we learned in the past century? International Journal of Behavioral Development,
Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., & Tremblay, R. E. (2002). Reactively and proactively aggressive children: Antecedent and subsequent characteristics. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,
Weissberg, R. P., & Greenberg, M. T. (1998). School and community competence-enhancement and prevention programs. In I. E. Siegel & K. A. Renninger (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 5. Child psychology in practice (5th ed., pp. 877–954). New York: Wiley.
Wentzel, K. R. (1993). Does being good make the grade? Social behavior and academic competence in middle school. Journal of Educational Psychology,
Wentzel, K. R., Filisetti, L., & Looney, L. (2007). Adolescent prosocial behavior: The role of self-processes and contextual cues. Child Development,
Wilkinson, L., & Task Force on Statistical Inference. (1999). Statistical methods in psychology journals: Guidelines and explanations. American Psychologist,
Wilson, D., Gottfredson, D., & Najaka, S. (2001). School based prevention of problem behaviors: A meta analysis. Journal of Quantitative Criminology,
Wilson, S. J., Lipsey, M. W., & Derzon, J. H. (2003). The effects of school-based intervention programs on aggressive behavior: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
Yau, M. (1999). An evaluation of the Roots of Empathy program: Some preliminary findings, 1997–99. Toronto District School Board: Academic Accountability Department.
Younger, A. J., Schneider, B. H., Wadeson, R., Guirguis, M., & Bergeron, N. (2000). A behavior-based peer-nomination measure of social withdrawal in children. Social Development,
Zahn-Waxler, C., Friedman, S. L., & Cummings, E. M. (1983). Children’s emotions and behaviors in response to infants’ cries. Child Development,
54, 1522–1528. doi:10.2307/1129815.
Zhou, Q., Valiente, C., & Eisenberg, N. (2003). Empathy and its measurement. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models and measures (pp. 269–284). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Zumbo, B. D. (1999). The simple difference score as an inherently poor measure of change: Some reality, much mythology. Advances in Social Science Methodology,