Advertisement

School Mental Health

, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 142–154 | Cite as

The School Mental Health Capacity Instrument: Development of an Assessment and Consultation Tool

  • Luba Falk FeigenbergEmail author
  • Caroline L. Watts
  • John C. Buckner
Original Paper

Abstract

This paper describes the development of the School Mental Health Capacity Instrument, a new measure designed to capture the extent to which a school is proactive in its approach to addressing mental health. The instrument assesses the policies, systems, and activities a school has in place related to intervention, early recognition and referral, and prevention and promotion. We share preliminary psychometric information about the instrument, including its excellent internal consistency, good test–retest stability, and evidence of criterion-related validity. The instrument has broad applicability for use by researchers and evaluators. In addition, consultants could use the instrument’s findings as a guide to helping schools become increasingly proactive in the way they address student mental health.

Keywords

Capacity School mental health Ecological assessment Consultation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported, in part, by funding from the Aetna Foundation and the Harvard University Provost’s Fund. The authors would like to thank Kristen Bonistall, Danielle Goldman, Jennifer Gorcos, Jennifer Masdea, Christina Nikitopoulos, and Jessica Waters for their assistance with data collection and entry, as well as Peter Forbes for his statistical consultation.

References

  1. Adelman, H. L., & Taylor, L. (2006). Mapping a school’s resources to improve their use in preventing and ameliorating problems. In C. Franklin, M. B. Harris, & P. Allen-Meares (Eds.), The school services sourcebook: A guide for social workers, counselors, and mental health professionals (pp. 977–990). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Aspinwall, L. G., Sechrist, G. B., & Jones, P. R. (2005). Expect the best and prepare for the worst: Anticipatory coping and preparations for Y2 K. Motivation and Emotion, 29(4), 357–388.Google Scholar
  3. Aspinwall, L. G., & Taylor, S. E. (1997). A stitch in time: Self-regulation and proactive coping. Psychological Bulletin, 121(3), 417–436.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Atkins, M. S., Frazier, S. L., Birman, D., Abdul-Adil, J., Jackson, M., Graczyk, P. A., et al. (2006). School-based mental health services for children living in high-poverty urban communities. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services, 33(2), 146–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bartko, J. J. (1976). On various intraclass correlation reliability coefficients. Psychological Bulletin, 83(4), 762–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Battistich, V., Schaps, E., & Wilson, N. (2004). Effects of an elementary school intervention on students’ “connectedness” to school and social adjustment during middle school. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 24(3), 243–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brand, S., Felner, R. D., Shim, M., Seitsinger, A., & Dumas, T. (2003). Middle school improvement and reform: Development and validation of a school-level assessment of climate, cultural pluralism, and school safety. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(3), 570–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brener, N. D., Pejavara, A., Barrios, L. C., Crossett, L., Lee, S. M., McKenna, M., et al. (2006). Applying the School Health Index to a nationally representative sample of schools. Journal of School Health, 76(2), 57–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, J. L., Roderick, J., Lantieri, L., & Aber, J. L. (2004). The resolving conflict creatively program: A school-based social and emotional learning program. In J. Zins, R. P. Weissberg, M. C. Wang, & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), Building academic success on social and emotional learning: What does the research say? (pp. 151–169). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  10. Buckner, J. C. (1988). The development of an instrument to measure neighborhood cohesion. American Journal of Community Psychology, 16(6), 771–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Caplan, G. (1964). Principles of preventive psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  12. Crant, J. M. (2000). Proactive behavior in organizations. Journal of Management, 26(3), 435–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Flaherty, L. T., & Weist, M. D. (1999). School-based mental health services: The Baltimore models. Psychology in the Schools, 36(5), 379–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Flannery, K. B., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2009). School-wide positive behavior support in high school: Early lessons learned. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(3), 177–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Flaspohler, P., Duffy, J., Wandersman, A., Stillman, L., & Maras, M. A. (2008). Unpacking prevention capacity: An intersection of research-to-practice models and community-centered models. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41(3–4), 182–196.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Glisson, C., & Hemmelgarn, A. (1998). The effects of organizational climate and interorganizational coordination on the quality and outcomes of children’s service systems. Child Abuse and Neglect, 22(5), 401–421.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Glisson, C., Landsverk, J., Schoenwald, S., Kelleher, K., Hoagwood, K., Mayberg, S., et al. (2008). Assessing the organizational social context (OSC) of mental health services: Implications for research and practice. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services, 35, 98–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gottfredson, G. D. (1984). The effective school battery: Student survey. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.Google Scholar
  19. Greenberg, M. T. (2003). Enhancing school-based prevention and youth development through coordinated social, emotional, and academic learning. American Psychologist, 58(6/7), 466–477.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Greenberg, M. T., Domitrovich, C., & Bumbarger, B. (2001). The prevention of mental disorders in school-aged children: Current state of the field. Prevention and Treatment, 4, Article 1. Retrieved 23 June 2009, from http://journals.apa.org.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/prevention/volume4/pre0040001a.html.
  21. Hoagwood, K. E., Olin, S. S., Kerker, B. D., Kratochwill, T. R., Crowe, M., & Saka, N. (2007). Empirically school based interventions targeted at academic and mental health functioning. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 15(2), 66–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513–524.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Horner, R. H., Todd, A. W., Lewis-Palmer, T., Irvin, L. K., Sugai, G., & Boland, J. B. (2004). The school-wide evaluation tool: A research instrument for assessing school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(1), 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hoy, W. K. (1990). Organizational climate and culture: A conceptual analysis of the school workplace. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 1(2), 149–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. James, L. R. (1982). Aggregation bias estimate of perceptual agreement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67(2), 215–231.Google Scholar
  26. Johnson, K. (2000). School crisis management: A hands-on guide to training crisis response teams (2nd ed.). Alameda, CA: Hunter House.Google Scholar
  27. Jorm, A. G., Korten, A. E., Jacomb, P. A., Christensen, H., Rodgers, B., & Pollitt, P. (1997). “Mental health literacy”: A survey of the public’s ability to recognize mental disorders and their beliefs about the effectiveness of treatment. Medical Journal of Australia, 166(4), 182–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Joyce, W. F., & Slocum, J. W. (1984). Collective climate: Agreement as a basis for defining aggregate climate in organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 27(4), 721–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kusche, C. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (1994). The PATHS curriculum. Seattle: Developmental Research and Programs, Inc.Google Scholar
  30. Levitt, J. M., Saka, N., Romanelli, L. H., & Hoagwood, K. (2007). Early identification of mental health problems in schools: The status of instrumentation. Journal of School Psychology, 45(2), 163–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mallett, R. K., & Swim, J. K. (2005). Bring it on: Proactive coping with discrimination. Motivation and Emotion, 29(4), 411–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Massachusetts Department of Education. (2007). from http://profiles.doe.mass.edu/districts.asp.
  33. McLaughlin, M. J., Leone, P. E., Meisel, S., & Henderson, K. (1997). Strengthen school and community capacity. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Problems, 5(1), 15–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Moos, R. H. (1979). Framework for evaluating environments. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.Google Scholar
  35. Mrazek, P. J., & Haggerty, R. J. (1994). Reducing risks for mental disorders: Frontiers for preventive intervention research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  36. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people (Document). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  37. New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. (2003). Achieving the promise: Transforming mental health care in America. Final report. (Document Number SMA-03-3832). Rockville, MD: Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  38. Noam, G. G., & Hermann, C. A. (2002). Where education and mental health meet: Developmental prevention and early intervention in schools. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 861–875.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Perry, C. M. (1999). Proactive thoughts on creating safe schools. The School Community Journal, 9(1), 9–16.Google Scholar
  40. Revenson, T. A., D’Augelli, A. R., French, S. E., Hughes, D. L., Livert, D., Seidman, E., et al. (Eds.). (2002). Ecological research to promote social change: Methodological advances from community psychology. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar
  41. Roeser, R. W., & Midgley, C. (1997). Teachers’ views of issues involving students’ mental health. The Elementary School Journal, 98(2), 115–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rones, M., & Hoagwood, K. E. (2000). School-based mental health services: A review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 3(4), 223–241.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. School Development Project. (2001). School climate survey. New Haven: Yale Child Study Center.Google Scholar
  44. Shrout, P. E., & Fleiss, J. L. (1979). Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin, 86(2), 420–428.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Staten, L. K., Teufel-Shone, N. I., Steinfelt, V. E., Ortega, N., Halverson, K., Flores, C., et al. (2005). The School Health Index as an impetus for change. Preventing Chronic Disease. [serial online] from http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2005/jan/04_0076.htm.
  46. Stockard, J., & Mayberry, M. (1992). Effective educational environments. Newbury Park, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  47. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2007). Community mental health services program for children and their families: Key outcomes for children and families in systems of care. from http://systemsofcare.samhsa.gov/news/datafactsheet.aspx Retrieved February 11, 2008.
  48. Trickett, E. J., & Moos, R. H. (1973). Social environment of junior high and high school classrooms. Journal of Educational Psychology, 65(1), 93–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tseng, V., & Seidman, E. (2007). A systems framework for understanding social settings. American Journal of Community Psychology, 39, 217–228.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1999). Mental health: A report of the Surgeon General (Document). Rockville, MD: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  51. USAID Center for Development Information and Evaluation. (2000). Measuring institutional capacity.Google Scholar
  52. Watts, C. L., & Buckner, J. C. (2007). Children’s Hospital Neighborhood Partnerships: A model for service delivery and systems change through school-community-university collaboration. The Community Psychologist, 40, 26–29.Google Scholar
  53. Weist, M. D., Sander, M. A., Walrath, C., Link, B., Nabors, L., Adelsheim, S., et al. (2005). Developing principles for best practice in expanded school mental health. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34(1), 7–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Weist, M. D., Stephan, S., Lever, N., Moore, E., & Lewis, K. (2006). School mental health quality assessment questionnaire (SMHQAQ). Baltimore: Center for School Mental Health Analysis & Action.Google Scholar
  55. Zins, J. E., Bloodworth, M. R., Weissberg, R. P., & Walberg, H. J. (2004). The scientific base linking social and emotional learning to school success. In J. Zins, R. P. Weissberg, M. C. Wang, & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), Building academic success on social and emotional learning: What the research says. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luba Falk Feigenberg
    • 1
    Email author
  • Caroline L. Watts
    • 2
  • John C. Buckner
    • 1
  1. 1.Children’s Hospital Boston/Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of EducationPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations