Journal of Hematopathology

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 51–56 | Cite as

Myeloid sarcoma of the nasal septum following invasive fungal sinusitis: report of a case and review of the relevant literature

  • Evan J. Cretney
  • Erik A. Ranheim
  • Gregory K. Hartig
Case Report


Myeloid sarcoma is an uncommon extramedullary manifestation of myeloproliferative malignancies, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This sarcoma most often involves structures such as subperiosteal bone, peritoneum, or pericardium, and has only rarely been reported in the nose and paranasal sinuses. The signs and symptoms of myeloid sarcoma can overlap with those of acute invasive fungal sinusitis (AIFS), a life-threatening surgical emergency. This report describes a 75-year-old male with a known history of AML who developed both AIFS and myeloid sarcoma. Several months after successful treatment for biopsy proven AIFS, this patient developed a new soft tissue mass of the nasal septum. A new biopsy was obtained which revealed infiltrating blast cells with evidence of monocytic differentiation diagnostic of myeloid sarcoma. Given symptoms of severe nasal obstruction, this patient received palliative radiotherapy to the nasal septum, which provided temporary improvement prior to the patient succumbing to his underlying malignancy. We review the existing reports of mucosal myeloid sarcomas, diagnostic overlap of myeloid sarcoma and AIFS, as well as currently available treatment strategies.


Myeloid sarcoma Sinonasal mucosa Acute myeloid leukemia Radiotherapy Chloroma Granulocytic sarcoma 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Evan J. Cretney
    • 1
  • Erik A. Ranheim
    • 2
  • Gregory K. Hartig
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck SurgeryUniversity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pathology and Laboratory MedicineUniversity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA
  3. 3.K4/7 Clinical Science CenterMadisonUSA

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