Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Autologous bone graft harvesting: a review of grafts and surgical techniques

  • Review
  • Published:
MUSCULOSKELETAL SURGERY Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Spinal fusion with or without instrumentation often requires the use of bone graft. Bone graft may be autogenous or exogenous. There are various forms of bone graft which may be acquired from numerous sites. Knowledge of fusion biology is imperative for understanding the benefits and limitations of these grafts. Equally as important is the knowledge of outcome measures, management of donor-site morbidity, and potential reconstruction. This review details the methods of obtaining bone graft and details the properties of each, as well as discusses observed outcomes, donor-site morbidities, and reconstruction techniques.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Finkemeier CG (2002) Bone-grafting and bone-graft substitutes. J Bone Jt Surg Am 84-A:454–464

    Google Scholar 

  2. Kalfas IH (2001) Principles of bone healing. Neurosurg Focus 10:E1

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Banwart JC, Asher MA, Hassanein RS (1995) Iliac crest bone graft harvest donor site morbidity. A statistical evaluation. Spine 20:1055–1060

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Kurz LT, Garfin SR, Booth RE Jr (1989) Harvesting autogenous iliac bone grafts. A review of complications and techniques. Spine 14:1324–1331

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Rupp RE, Podeszwa D, Ebraheim NA (1994) Danger zones associated with fibular osteotomy. J Orthop Trauma 8:54–58

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Albee FH (2007) Transplantation of a portion of the tibia into the spine for Pott’s disease: a preliminary report 1911. Clin Orthop Relat Res 460:14–16

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Grabowski G, Cornett CA (2013) Bone graft and bone graft substitutes in spine surgery: current concepts and controversies. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 21:51–60

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Burwell RG (1964) Studies in the transplantation of bone. VII. The fresh composite homograft-autograft of cancellous bone; an analysis of factors leading to osteogenesis in marrow transplants and in marrow-containing bone grafts. J Bone Jt Surg Br 46:110–140

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Friedlaender GE (1987) Bone grafts. The basic science rationale for clinical applications. J Bone Jt Surg Am 69:786–790

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Kingma MJ, Hampe JF (1964) The behaviour of blood vessels after experimental transplantation of bone. J Bone Jt Surg Br 46:141–150

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Benzel EC (2012) Spine surgery 2-vol set: techniques, complication avoidance, and management (Expert Consult—Online). Elsevier Health Sciences (ed)

  12. Doi K, Tominaga S, Shibata T (1977) Bone grafts with microvascular anastomoses of vascular pedicles: an experimental study in dogs. J Bone Jt Surg Am 59:809–815

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Urist MR, DeLange RJ, Finerman GA (1983) Bone cell differentiation and growth factors. Science 220:680–686

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Smith MD, Cody DD (1993) Load-bearing capacity of corticocancellous bone grafts in the spine. J Bone Jt Surg Am 75:1206–1213

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Ebraheim NA, Elgafy H, Xu R (2001) Bone-graft harvesting from iliac and fibular donor sites: techniques and complications. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 9:210–218

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Kho VK, Chen WC (2008) Posterolateral fusion using laminectomy bone chips in the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis. Int Orthop 32:115–119

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Fischer CR, Ducoffe AR, Errico TJ (2014) Posterior lumbar fusion: choice of approach and adjunct techniques. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 22:503–511

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Niu CC, Tsai TT, Fu TS et al (2009) A comparison of posterolateral lumbar fusion comparing autograft, autogenous laminectomy bone with bone marrow aspirate, and calcium sulphate with bone marrow aspirate: a prospective randomized study. Spine 34:2715–2719

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Radcliff K, Hwang R, Hilibrand A et al (2012) The effect of iliac crest autograft on the outcome of fusion in the setting of degenerative spondylolisthesis: a subgroup analysis of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT). J Bone Jt Surg Am 94:1685–1692

    Google Scholar 

  20. Sengupta DK, Truumees E, Patel CK et al (2006) Outcome of local bone versus autogenous iliac crest bone graft in the instrumented posterolateral fusion of the lumbar spine. Spine 31:985–991

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Goyal T, Sankineani SR, Tripathy SK (2013) Local distal radius bone graft versus iliac crest bone graft for scaphoid nonunion: a comparative study. Musculoskelet Surg 97:109–114

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Bono CM, Lee CK (2004) Critical analysis of trends in fusion for degenerative disc disease over the past 20 years: influence of technique on fusion rate and clinical outcome. Spine 29:455–463 (discussion Z5)

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Dawson EG, Lotysch M, 3rd, Urist MR (1981) Intertransverse process lumbar arthrodesis with autogenous bone graft. Clin Orthop Relat Res 154:90–96

  24. Wolfe SA, Kawamoto HK (1978) Taking the iliac-bone graft. J Bone Jt Surg Am 60:411

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Jones AA, Dougherty PJ, Sharkey NA et al (1993) Iliac crest bone graft. Osteotome versus saw. Spine 18:2048–2052

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Gore DR (2001) The arthrodesis rate in multilevel anterior cervical fusions using autogenous fibula. Spine 26:1259–1263

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Kim CW, Abrams R, Lee G et al (2001) Use of vascularized fibular grafts as a salvage procedure for previously failed spinal arthrodesis. Spine 26:2171–2175

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Di Bella C, Lucarelli E, Donati D (2008) Historical review of bone prefabrication. La Chirurgia degli organi di movimento 92:73–78

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Hardy JH (1977) Iliac crest reconstruction following full-thickness graft: a preliminary note. Clin Orthop Relat Res 123:32–33

  30. Dell PC, Burchardt H, Glowczewskie FP Jr (1985) A roentgenographic, biomechanical, and histological evaluation of vascularized and non-vascularized segmental fibular canine autografts. J Bone Jt Surg Am 67:105–112

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Sawin PD, Traynelis VC, Menezes AH (1998) A comparative analysis of fusion rates and donor-site morbidity for autogeneic rib and iliac crest bone grafts in posterior cervical fusions. J Neurosurg 88:255–265

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Cohen MW, Drummond DS, Flynn JM et al (2001) A technique of occipitocervical arthrodesis in children using autologous rib grafts. Spine 26:825–829

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Laurie SW, Kaban LB, Mulliken JB et al (1984) Donor-site morbidity after harvesting rib and iliac bone. Plast Reconstr Surg 73:933–938

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Kang J, An H, Hilibrand A et al (2012) Grafton and local bone have comparable outcomes to iliac crest bone in instrumented single-level lumbar fusions. Spine 37:1083–1091

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Ito Z, Imagama S, Kanemura T et al (2013) Bone union rate with autologous iliac bone versus local bone graft in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF): a multicenter study. Eur Spine J 22:1158–1163

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Rihn JA, Kirkpatrick K, Albert TJ (2010) Graft options in posterolateral and posterior interbody lumbar fusion. Spine 35:1629–1639

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Saraph VJ, Bach CM, Krismer M et al (2005) Evaluation of spinal fusion using autologous anterior strut grafts and posterior instrumentation for thoracic/thoracolumbar kyphosis. Spine 30:1594–1601

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Dimar JR 2nd, Glassman SD, Burkus JK et al (2009) Two-year fusion and clinical outcomes in 224 patients treated with a single-level instrumented posterolateral fusion with iliac crest bone graft. Spine J 9:880–885

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Schwartz CE, Martha JF, Kowalski P et al (2009) Prospective evaluation of chronic pain associated with posterior autologous iliac crest bone graft harvest and its effect on postoperative outcome. Health Qual Life Outcomes 7:49

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Kim DH, Rhim R, Li L et al (2009) Prospective study of iliac crest bone graft harvest site pain and morbidity. Spine J 9:886–892

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Robertson PA, Wray AC (2001) Natural history of posterior iliac crest bone graft donation for spinal surgery: a prospective analysis of morbidity. Spine 26:1473–1476

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Gore DR, Gardner GM, Sepic SB, et al (1987) Function following partial fibulectomy. Clin Orthop Relat Res 220:206–210

  43. Whitaker LA, Munro IR, Salyer KE et al (1979) Combined report of problems and complications in 793 craniofacial operations. Plast Reconstr Surg 64:198–203

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Summers BN, Eisenstein SM (1989) Donor site pain from the ilium. A complication of lumbar spine fusion. J Bone Jt Surg Br 71:677–680

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Singh K, Phillips FM, Kuo E et al (2007) A prospective, randomized, double-blind study of the efficacy of postoperative continuous local anesthetic infusion at the iliac crest bone graft site after posterior spinal arthrodesis: a minimum of 4-year follow-up. Spine 32:2790–2796

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. Singh D, Gombar KK, Bhatia N et al (2013) Evaluation of analgesic effect of local administration of morphine after iliac crest bone graft harvesting: a double blind study. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 29:356–360

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. Asano S, Kaneda K, Satoh S et al (1994) Reconstruction of an iliac crest defect with a bioactive ceramic prosthesis. Eur Spine J 3:39–44

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Harris MB, Davis J, Gertzbein SD (1994) Iliac crest reconstruction after tricortical graft harvesting. J Spinal Disord 7:216–221

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Wang MY, Levi AD, Shah S et al (2002) Polylactic acid mesh reconstruction of the anterior iliac crest after bone harvesting reduces early postoperative pain after anterior cervical fusion surgery. Neurosurgery 51:413–416 (discussion 6)

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Bojescul JA, Polly DW Jr, Kuklo TR et al (2005) Backfill for iliac-crest donor sites: a prospective, randomized study of coralline hydroxyapatite. Am J Orthop 34:377–382

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Burton DC, Carlson BB, Johnson PL et al (2013) Backfilling of iliac crest defects with hydroxyapatite-calcium triphosphate biphasic compound: a prospective, randomized computed tomography and patient-based analysis. Spine J 13:54–61

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Conflict of interest

None.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. M. Jakoi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Jakoi, A.M., Iorio, J.A. & Cahill, P.J. Autologous bone graft harvesting: a review of grafts and surgical techniques. Musculoskelet Surg 99, 171–178 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12306-015-0351-6

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12306-015-0351-6

Keywords

Navigation