Sound is an inherent component of the environment that provides conditions and information necessary for many animal activities. Soniferous species require specific acoustic and physical conditions suitable for their signals to be transmitted, received, and effectively interpreted to successfully identify and utilize resources in their environment and interact with conspecifics and other heterospecific organisms. We propose the Acoustic Habitat Hypothesis to explain how the acoustic environment influences habitat selection of sound-dependent species. We postulate that sound-dependent species select and occupy habitats with unique acoustic characteristics that are essential to their functional needs and conducive to the threshold of sound frequency they produce and detect. These acoustic habitats are based on the composition of biophony, geophony, and technophony in the soundscape and on the biosemiotics mechanisms described in the eco-field hypothesis. The Acoustic Habitat Hypothesis initiates questions of habitat selection that go beyond the physical attributes of the environment by applying ecoacoustics theory. We outline the theoretical basis of the Acoustic Habitat Hypothesis and provide examples from the literature to support its assumptions. The concept of acoustic habitats has been documented in the literature for many years but here, we accurately and extensively define acoustic habitat and we put this concept into a unified theory. We also include perspectives on how the Acoustic Habitat Hypothesis can stimulate a paradigm shift in conservation strategies for threatened and endangered species.
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We thank Bernie Krause, Jérôme Sueur, and Dimitrios Bormpoudakis for their support and discussions on the topic of acoustic habitats. We appreciate the support from the International Society of Ecoacoustics and their encouragement to publish our hypothesis. We also appreciate the efforts of Timo Maran and an anonymous reviewer whose comments and suggestions helped improve this work. Finally, the findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of any government agencies.
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Mullet, T.C., Farina, A. & Gage, S.H. The Acoustic Habitat Hypothesis: An Ecoacoustics Perspective on Species Habitat Selection. Biosemiotics 10, 319–336 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12304-017-9288-5
- Acoustic habitat
- Acoustic habitat hypothesis
- Habitat selection