The present study is an attempt to know the temporal and spatial distribution of geochemical components in the lignite deposit of Kapurdi, Barmer Basin (Rajasthan). Lignite samples have been subjected to proximate, ultimate and elemental analyses, and determination of mineral carbon (MINC%). Besides, various minerals and functional groups have been analyzed through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Selected environmentally sensitive and potential hazardous elements like Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Mn, Al, Fe and Co are determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). To know the association of minerals with organic matter, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) has also been carried out. The concentration of Co, Ni, Cd, Pb, Na, and K is high when compared with world average and is main concern for the environmental and health hazards. The elements like Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn, and Pb have shown increasing trend from top to bottom of the lignite seam with some fluctuations in the values in few bands whereas others do not follow a definite trend of variation along the seam profile.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ahmad, M.S. and Ashraf, M., 2011, Essential roles and hazardous effects of nickel in plants. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 214, 125–167.
Bachman, G.R. and Miller, W.B., 1995, Iron chelate inducible iron/manganese toxicity in zonal geranium. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 18, 1917–1929.
Bernard, A., 2008, Cadmium & its adverse effects on human health. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 128, 557–564.
BIS, 2003, Methods of test for coal and coke (2nd revision of IS: 1350). Part I, Proximate analysis, Bureau of Indian Standard, 1-29.
Bouška, V., Pešek, J., and Sy'korova, I., 2000, Probable modes of occurrence of chemical elements in coal. Acta Montana, 117, 53–90.
Buchanan, B.B., Gruisssem, W., and Jones, R.L., 2000, Biochemistry and molecular biology of plants. American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockville, 1367 p.
Chen, J., Chen, P., Yao, D., Liu, Z., Wu, Y., Liu, W., and Hu, Y., 2015, Mineralogy and geochemistry of Late Permian coals from the Donglin Coal Mine in the Nantong coalfield in Chongqing, southwestern China. International Journal of Coal Geology, 149, 24–40.
China National Standardization Administration, 1994, Chinese National Standard GB/T 15224.1-1994, Classification for coal quality Part 1: Ash. Field Test Asia Private Limited, Singapore. https://www.chine-sestandard.net/PDF/English.aspx/GBT15224.1-1994
China National Standardization Administration, 2004, Chinese National Standard GB/T 15224.2-2004, Classification for coal quality Part 2: Sulfur content. Field Test Asia Private Limited, Singapore. https://www.chinesestandard.net/PDF/English.aspx/GBT15224.2-2004
Compton, P.M., 2009, The geology of the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan, India, and the origins of its major oil reservoir, the Fatehgarh Formation. Petroleum Geoscience, 15, 117–130.
Cooke, N.E., Fuller, O.M., and Gaikwad, R.P., 1986, FT-ir spectroscopic analysis of coals and coal extracts. Fuel, 65, 1254–1260.
Dai, S., Yang, J., Ward, C.R., Hower, J.C., Liu, H., Garrison, T.M., French, D., and O'Keefe, J.M.K., 2015a, Geochemical and mineralogical evidence for a coal-hosted uranium deposit in the YiliBasin, Xinjiang, northwestern China. Ore Geology Reviews, 70, 1–30.
Dai, S., Hower, J.C., Ward, C.R., Guo, W., Song, H., O'Keefe, J.M.K., Xie, P., Hood, M.M., and Yan, X., 2015b, Elements and phosphorus minerals in the middle Jurassic inertinite-rich coals of the Muli Coalfield on the Tibetan Plateau. International Journal of Coal Geology, 144-145, 23-47.
Dai, S.F., Zhang, W.G., Ward, C.R., Seredin, V.V., Hower, J.C., Li, X., Song, W.J., Wang, X.B., Kang, H., Zheng, L.C., Wang, P.P., and Zhou, D., 2013, Mineralogical and geochemical anomalies of late Permian coals from the Fusui Coalfield, Guangxi Province, Southern China: influences of terrigenous materials and hydrothermal fluids. International Journal of Coal Geology, 105, 60–84.
Das, T.K., 2001, Thermo volumetric characterisation of maceral concentrates of Russian coking coals. Fuel, 80, 97–106.
Deshmukh, G.P. and Mishra, S.P., 1971, Geological mapping in parts of Barmer and Jaisalmer districts, Rajasthan. Unpublished Progress Report F.S., Geological Society of India, Bangalore, 70 p.
Dhankhar, R., Sainger, P.A., and Sainger, M., 2012, Phytoextraction of zinc: physiological and molecular mechanism. Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, 21, 115–133.
Eskenzy, G.M. and Stefanova, Y.S., 2007, Trace elements in the Gozem Delchev coal deposit, Bulgaria. International Journal of Coal Geology 72, 257–267.
Forray, F.L., Drouet, C., and Navrotsky, A., 2005, Thermochemistry of yavapaiite KFe(SO4)2: formation and decomposition. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69, 2133–2140.
Gayer, R.A., Rose, M., Dehmer, J., and Shao, L., 1999, Impact of sulphur and trace element geochemistry on the utilization of amarine-influenced coal — case study from the South Wales Variscan foreland basin. International Journal of Coal Geology, 40, 151–174.
Ghani, A., 2011, Effect of chromium toxicity on growth, chlorophyll and some mineral nutrients of Brassica juncea L. Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences, 2, 9–15.
Goodarzi, F., 2002, Mineralogy, elemental composition and modes of occurrence of elements in Candian feed-coals. Fuel, 81, 1199–1213.
Goyer, R.A., 1990, Lead toxicity: from overt to subclinical to subtle health effects. Environmental Health Perspectives, 86, 177–181.
Grigoriew, H., 1990, Diffraction studies of coal structure. Fuel, 69, 840–845.
Habiba, U., Ali, S., Farid, M., Shakoor, M.B., Rizwan, M., Ibrahim, M., Abbasi, G.H., Hayat, T., and Ali, M., 2015, EDTA enhanced plant growth, antioxidant defense system, and phytoextraction of copper by Brassica napus L. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22, 1534–1544.
Henson, M.C. and Chedrese, P.J., 2004, Endocrine disruption by cadmium, a common environmental toxicant with paradoxical effects on reproduction. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 229, 383–392.
Hower, J.C. and Robertson, J.D., 2003, Clausthalite in coal. International Journal of Coal Geology, 53, 219–225.
Ibarra, J., Palacios, J., and de Andres, A.M., 1989, Analysis of coal and char ashes and their ability for sulphur retention. Fuel, 68, 861–867.
International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP), 2001, The new inertinite classification (I.C.C.P. System 1994). Fuel, 80, 459–471.
Jaishankar, M., Tseten, T., Anbalagan, N., Mathew, B.B., and Beeregowda, K.N., 2014, Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 7, 60–72.
Jodha, B.S., 2003, A final report on regional exploration for lignite in Mahabar-Shivkar area, Barmer district, Rajasthan F.S. 1999-2000 to 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 (part), Geological Survey of India, Bangalore, 47 p. (Unpublished)
Karr, J.C., 1978, Analytical methods for coal and coal products (1st edition). Academic Press, New York, 600 p.
Ketris, M.P. and Yudovich, Y.E., 2009, Estimations of Clarkes for carbonaceous biolithes: world average for trace element contents in black shales and coals. International Journal of Coal Geology, 78, 135–148.
Kitao, M., Lei, T.T., and Koike, T., 1999, Effects of manganese in solution culture on the growth of five deciduous broad-leaved tree species with different successional characters from northern Japan. Photo-synthetica, 36, 31–40.
Kler, V.R., Nenakhova, V.F., YaSaprykin, F., Shpirt, M.Y., Rokhlin, L.I., Kulachkova, A.F., and Iovchev, R.I., 1988, Metallogeny and Geochemistry of Coal-bearing and Pyroschistbearing Sequences. Concentration of Elements and Methods of Their Study. Nauka, Moscow, 256 p. (in Russian)
Kolker, A., 2012, Minor element distribution in iron disulfides in coal: a geochemical review. International Journal of Coal Geology, 94, 32–43.
Kuder, T., Kruge, M.A., Shearer, J.C., and Miller, S.L., 1998, Environmental and botanical controls on peatification — a comparative study of two New Zealand restiad bogs using Py-GC/MS, petrography and fungal analysis. International Journal of Coal Geology, 37, 3–27.
Kumar, D., Singh, D.P., Barman, S.C., and Kumar, N., 2016, Heavy metal and their regulation in plant system: an overview. In: Singh, A., Prasad, S., and Singh, R. (eds.), Plant Responses to Xenobiotics. Springer, Singapore, p. 19-38.
Li, Z., Ward, C.R., and Gurba, W.L., 2010, Occurrence of non-mineral inorganic elements in macerals of low-rank coals. International Journal of Coal Geology, 81, 242–250.
Lindholm, R., 1987, A Practical Approach to Sedimentology. Allen & Unwin, London, Port Nicholson Press, Wellington, 132 p.
Liu, D.M., Yang, Q., Tang, D.Z., Kang, X.D., and Huang, W.H., 2001, Geochemistry of sulfur and elements in coals from the Antaibao surface mine, Pingshuo, Shanxi Province, China. International Journal of Coal Geology, 46, 51–64.
Mahmood, T. and Islam, K.R., 2006, Response of rice seedlings to copper toxicity and acidity. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 29, 943–957.
Makreski, P., Jovanovski, G., and Dimitrovska, S., 2005, Minerals from Macedonia: XIV. Identification of some sulfate minerals by vibrational (infrared and Raman) spectroscopy. Vibrational Spectroscopy, 39, 229–239.
Martin, S. and Griswold, W., 2009, Human health effects of heavy metals. Environmental Science and Technology Briefs for Citizens, 15, 1–6.
Medunić, G., Ahel, M., Božičević Mihalić, I., Gaurina Srček, V., Kopjar, N., Fiket, Ž., Bituh, T., and Mikac, I., 2016, Toxic airborne S, PAH, and trace element legacy of the superhigh-organic-sulphur Raša coal combustion: cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of soil and ash. Science of the Total Environment, 566–567, 306-319.
Medunić, G., Kuharić, Ž., Krivohlavek, A., Fiket, Ž., Rađenović, A., Gödel, K., Kampić, Š., and Kniewald, G., 2018, Geochemistry of Croatian superhigh-organic-sulphur Raša coal, imported low-S coal and bottom ash: their Se and trace metal fingerprints in seawater, clover, foliage and mushroom specimens. International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, 18, 3–24.
Nakazawa, R., Kameda, Y., Ito, T., Ogita, Y., Michihata, R., and Take-naga, H., 2004, Selection and characterization of nickel tolerant tobacco cells. Biologia Plantarum, 48, 497–502.
Neelima, P. and Reddy, K.J., 2002, Interaction of copper and cadmium with seedlings growth and biochemical responses in Solanum melongena. Nature, Environment and Pollution Technology, 1, 285–290.
Oldham, R.D., 1886, Preliminary note on the geology of northern Jaisalmer. Record Geological Survey of India, 19, 157–160.
Pareek, H.S. and Bardhan, B., 1985, Trace elements and their variation along seam profiles of certain coal seams of Middle and Upper Bara -kar Formations (Lower Permian) in East Bokaro Coalfield, district Hazaribagh, Bihar, India. International Journal of Coal Geology, 5, 281–314.
Prachiti, P.K., Manikyamba, C., Singh, P.K., Balaram, V., Lakshminarayana, G., Raju, K., Singh, M.P., Kalpana, S., and Arora, M., 2011, Geochemical systematics and precious metal content of the sedimentary horizons of Lower Gondwanas from the Sattupalli coal field, Godavari Valley, India. International Journal of Coal Geology, 88, 83–100.
Querol, X., Juan, R., Lopez-Soler, A., Fernandez-Turiel, J.L., and Ruiz, C.R., 1996, Mobility of trace elements from coal and combustion wastes. Fuel, 75, 821–838.
Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Zhuang, X.G., Hower, J.C., Lopez-Soler, A., Plana, F., and Zeng, R.S., 2001, Petrology, mineralogy and geochemistr y of the Permian and Triassic coals in the Leping area, Jiangxi Province, southeast China. International Journal of Coal Geology, 48, 23–45.
Rajak, P.K., Singh, V.K., Singh, P.K., Singh, A.L., Kumar, N., Kumar, O.P., Singh, V., and Kumar, A., 2018, Geochemical implications of minerals and environmentally sensitive elements of Giral lignite, Barmer basin, Rajasthan (India). Environmental Earth Science, 77, 698. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-018-7885-5
Reimann, C. and de Caritat, P., 1998, Chemical Elements in the Environment. Springer, New York, 397 p.
Ren, D.Y., 1996, Mineral matter in coal. In: Han, D.X. (ed.), Coal Petrology of China. Publishing House of China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, p. 67-77.
Ren, D.Y., Xu, D.W., and Zhao, F.H., 2004, A preliminary study on the enrichment mechanism and occurrence of hazardous trace elements in the Tertiary lignite from the Shenbei coalfield, China. International Journal of Coal Geology, 57, 187–196.
Riley, K.W., French, D.H., Farrell, O.P., Wood, R.A., and Huggins, F.E., 2012, Modes of occurrence of trace and minor elements in some Australian coals. International Journal of Coal Geology, 94, 214–224.
Rizwan, M., Ali, S., and Adrees, M., 2016, Cadmium stress in rice: toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management: a critical review. Environmental Science Pollution Research, 23, 17859–17879.
Sahoo, B.N., 1991, Occurrence of trace elements in respirable coal dust. Proceedings of The International Conference on Environmental Impact of Coal Utilization, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Jan. 14-15, p. 85-95.
Scheinman, F., 1970, An Introduction to Spectroscopic Methods for the Identification of Organic Compound, Vol. 1: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Infrared Spectroscopy. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 201 p.
Schopf, J.M., 1960, Field Description and Sampling of Coal Beds. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, 1111-B, US Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 70 p.
Seredin, V.V., 2004 Metalliferous coals: formation conditions and outlooks for development. In: Cherepovskyi, V.F. (ed.), Coal Resources of Russia, Vol. VI. Geoinformmark, Moscow, 519 p.
Seredin, V.V., 2005, Rare earth elements in Germanium-bearing coal seams of the Spetsugli Deposit (Primor'e Region, Russia). Geology of Ore Deposits C/C of Geologiia Rudnykh Mestorozhdenii, 47, 238–255.
Seredin, V. V. and Finkelman, R.B., 2008, Metalliferous coals: a review of the main genetic and geochemical types. International Journal of Coal Geology, 76, 253–289.
Sethy, S.K. and Ghosh, S., 2013, Effect of heavy metals on germination of seeds. Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine, 4, 272–275.
Siddiquie, H.N. and Bahl, D.P., 1965, Geology of the bentonite deposits of Barmer district, Rajasthan. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Government of India, Manager of Publication, Delhi, 96, 96 p.
Singh, A.L., Singh, P.K., Kumar, A., and Singh, M.P., 2012a, Desulfurization of selected hard and brown coal samples from India and Indonesia with Ralstonia sp. and Pseudoxanthomonas sp. Energy Exploration and Exploitation, 30, 985–998.
Singh, A.L., Singh, P.K., Singh, M.P., and Kumar, A., 2015a, Environmentally sensitive major and trace elements in Indonesian coal and their geochemical significance. Energy Source Part A, 37, 1836–1845.
Singh, A.L., Singh, P.K., Kumar, A., Yadav, A., and Singh, M.P., 2014, Experimental study on demineralization of coal with Pseudomonas mendocina strain B6-1 bacteria to obtain clean fuel. Energy Exploration and Exploitation, 32, 831–846.
Singh, P.K. and Singh, M.P., 2013, Coal resource of India in context of recent developments in clean coal technologies. In: Sharma, P.R., Yadav, R.S., and Sharma, V.N. (eds.), Interdisciplinary Advances in Environmental and Earth System Studies (1st edition). R.K. Books, New Delhi, p. 198–212.
Singh, P.K., Singh, G.P., and Naik, A.S., 2010a, Petrological considerations for beneficiation of Indian coal. Journal of Scientific Research, 54, 51–60.
Singh, P.K., Singh, M.P., and Singh, A.K., 2010b, Petro-chemical characterization and evolution of Vastan lignite, Gujarat, India. International Journal of Coal Geology, 82, 1–16.
Singh, P.K., Singh, A.L., Kumar, A., and Singh, M.P., 2011, A study on removal of selected major elements from Indonesian coal through bacteria: environmental implications. Proceedings of the International Conference on Energy, Environment, Sustainable Development 75, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET), Bangkok, Mar. 29-31, p. 925-935.
Singh, P.K., Singh, A.L., Kumar, A., and Singh, M.P., 2012b, Mixed bacterial consortium as an emerging tool to remove hazardous trace metals from coal. Fuel, 102, 227–230.
Singh, P.K., Singh, A.L., Kumar, A., and Singh, M.P., 2013, Control of different pyrite forms on desulfurization of` coal with bacteria. Fuel, 106, 876–879.
Singh, P.K., Singh, V.K., Singh, M.P., and Rajak, P.K., 2017a, Petrographic characteristics and paleoenvironmental history of Eocene lignites of Cambay Basin, western India. International Journal of Coal Science and Technology, 4, 214–233.
Singh, P.K., Singh, V.K., Singh, M.P., and Rajak, P.K., 2017b, Understanding the paleomires of Eocene lignites of Kachchh Basin, Gujarat (western India): petrological implications. International Journal of Coal Science and Technology, 4, 80–101.
Singh, P.K., Singh, V.K., Singh, M.P., and Rajak, P.K., 2017c, Paleomires of Eocene lignites of Bhavnagar, Saurashtra Basin (Gujarat), western India: petrographic implications. Journal of Geological Society of India, 90, 9–19.
Singh, P.K., Singh, V.K., Rajak, P.K., Singh, M.P., and Naik, A.S., 2016d, Distribution and geochemistry of selected trace elements in the lignites of Cambay Basin, Gujarat, western India. Journal of Geological Society of India, 88, 131–146.
Singh, P.K., Rajak, P.K., Singh, M.P., Singh, V.K., and Naik, A.S., 2016e, Geochemistry of Kasnau-Matasukh lignites, Nagaur Basin, Rajas-than (India). International Journal of Coal Science of Technology, 3, 104–122.
Singh, P.K., Rajak, P.K., Singh, M.P., Singh, V.K., Naik, A.S., and Singh, A.K., 2016a, Peat swamps at Giral lignite field of Barmer Basin, Rajasthan, western India: understanding the evolution through petrological modelling. International Journal of Coal Science and Technology, 3, 148–164.
Singh, P.K., Rajak, P.K., Singh, V.K., Singh, M.P., Naik, A.S., and Raju, S.V., 2016c, Studies on thermal maturity and hydrocarbon potential of lignites of Bikaner-Nagaur Basin, Rajasthan. Energy Exploration and Exploitation, 34, 140–157.
Singh, P.K., Singh, M.P., Singh, A.K., Naik, A.S., Singh, V.K., Singh, V.K., and Rajak, P.K., 2012c, Petrological and geochemical investigations of Rajpardi lignite deposit, Gujarat, India. Energy Exploration and Exploitation, 30, 131–152.
Singh, P.K., Rajak, P.K., Singh, M.P., Naik, A.S., Singh, V.K., Raju, S.V., and Ojha, S., 2015b, Environmental geochemistry of selected elements in lignite from Barsingsarand Gurha Mines of Rajasthan, western India. Journal of Geological Society of India, 86, 23–32.
Singh, P.K., Singh, V.K., Rajak, P.K., Singh, M.P., Naik., A.S., Raju, S.V., and Mohanty, D., 2016b, Eocene lignites from Cambay Basin, western India: an excellent source of hydrocarbon. Geoscience Frontiers, 7, 811–819.
Singh, V.K, Rajak, P.K., and Singh, P.K., 2019, Revisiting the paleomires of western India: an insight into the early Paleogene lignite corridor. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 171, 363–375.
Singh, V.P., Singh, B.D., Mathews, R.P., Singh, A., Mendhe, V.A., Singh, P.K., Mishra, S., Dutta, S., Shivanna, M., and Singh, M.P., 2017d, Investigation on the lignite deposits of Surkha mine (Saurashtra Basin, Gujarat), western India: their depositional history and hydrocarbon generation potential. International Journal of Coal Geology, 183, 78–99.
Sisodia, M.S. and Singh, U.K., 2000, Depositional environment and hydrocarbon prospects of the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan, India. Nafta, 51, 309–326.
Spears, D.A. and Zheng, Y., 1999, Geochemistry and origin of elements in some UK coals. International Journal of Coal Geology, 38, 161–179.
Spears, D.A. and Tewalt, S.J., 2009, The geochemistry of environmentally important trace elements in UK coals, with special reference to the Parkgate coal in the Yorkshire-Nottinghamshire Coalfield, UK. International Journal of Coal Geology, 80, 157–166.
Spears, D.A., Borrego, A.G., Cox, A., and Martinez-Tarazona, R.M., 2007, Use of laser ablation ICP-MS to determine trace element distributions in coals, with special reference to V, Ge and Al. International Journal of Coal Geology, 72, 165–176.
Speight, J.G., 1994, The Chemistry and Technology of Coal (2nd edition). Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 636 p.
Swaine, D.J., 1990, Trace Elements in Coal. Butterworths & Co, London, 278 p.
Sýkorová, I., Pickel, W., Christanis, M., Wolf, K., Taylor, G.H., and Flores, D., 2005, Classification of huminite, ICCP system 1994. International Journal of Coal Geology, 62, 85–106.
Tang, Y., Chang, C., Zhang, Y., and Li, W., 2009, Migration and distribution of fifteen toxic trace elements during the coal washing of the Kailuan Coalfield, Hebei Province, China. Energy Exploration and Exploitation, 27, 143–151.
Taylor, G.H., Teichmüller, M., and Davis, A., Diessel, C.F.K., Littke, R., and Robert, P., 1998, Organic Petrology: A New Handbook Incorporating Some Revised Parts of Stach’s Textbook of Coal Petrology. Gebruüder Borntraeger, Berlin, 704 p.
Teichmüller, M., 1994, International Committee for Coal Petrology, 3rd Supplement to the 2nd Edition of the International Handbook of Coal Petrography: 1993, available from Prof. D. Murchison, Newcastle Research Group in Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry, Drummond Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK, 121 pp. +19 plates, ≤14+p&p. International Journal of Coal Geology, 26, 264. https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-5162(94)90015-9
Teichmüller, M., Littke, R., and Taylor, G.H., 1998, The origin of organic matter in sedimentary rocks. In: Taylor, G.H., Teichmüller, M., Davis, A., Diessel, C.F.K., Littke, R., and Robert, P. (eds.), Organic Petrology. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, 704 p.
Tripathi, S.K.M., Kumar, M., and Srivastava, D., 2009, Palynology of lower palaeogene (ThanetianYpresian) coastal deposits from the Barmer Basin (Akli Formation, western Rajasthan, India): palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic implications. Geologica Acta 7, 147–160.
Valko, M.M.H.C.M., Morris, H., and Cronin, M.T.D., 2005, Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 12, 1161–1208.
Vassileva, S.V. and Vassileva, C.G., 1997, Geochemistry of coal ashes and combustion wastes from coal fired power stations. Fuel Processing Technology, 51, 19–45.
Vikram, A., Johri, T., and Tandon, P.K., 2011, Effect of chromium(IV) on growth and metabolism of Spinaciaoleracea (Spinach) plants. Research in Environment and Life Sciences 4, 119–124.
Vuori, K-M., 1995, Direct and Indirect effects of iron on river eco systems. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 32, 317–329.
W.H.O., 1997, Aluminium. Geneva, World Health Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Environmental Health Criteria, 194 p.
Wang, W., Qin, Y., Liu, X., Zhao, J., Wang, J., and Wu, G., 2011, Distribution, occurrence and enrichment causes of gallium in coals from the Jungar Coalfield, Inner Mongolia. Science China Earth Sciences, 54, 1053–1068.
Wang, W.F., Qin, Y., Sang, S.X., Zhu, Y.M., Wang, C.Y., and Weiss, D.J., 2008, Geochemistry of rare earth elements in a marine influenced coal and its organic solvent extracts from the Antaibao mining district, Shanxi, China. International Journal of Coal Geology, 76, 309–317.
Ward, C.R., 2002, Analysis and significance of mineral matter in coal seams. International Journal of Coal Geology, 50, 135–138.
Ward, C.R., Matulis, C.E., Tayler, J.C., and Dale, L.S., 2001, Quantification of mineral matter in the Argonne Premium coals using interactive Rietveld-based X-ray diffraction. International Journal of Coal Geology, 46, 67–82.
Ward, C.R., Spears, D.A., Booth, C.A., Staton, I., and Gurba, L.W., 1999, Mineral matter and trace elements in coals of the Gunnedah Basin, New South Wales, Australia. International Journal of Coal Geology, 40, 281–308.
Wilkin, R.T. and Barnes, H.L., 1997, Formation processes of framboidal pyrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 61, 323–339.
Yang, X.E., Long, X.X., Ye, H.B., He, Z.L., Calvert, D.V., and Stoffella, P.J., 2004, Cadmium tolerance and hyper accumulation in a new Zn-hyper accumulating plant species (Sedum alfredii Hance). Plant and Soil, 259, 181–189.
Yudovich, Y.A.E., 1978, Geochemistry of Fossil Coals. Nauka, Leningrad, 262 p. (in Russian)
Zhang, J., Ren, D., Zhu, Y., Chou, C.L., Zeng, R., and Zheng, B., 2004, Mineral matter and potentially hazardous trace elements in coals from Qianxi fault depression area in southwestern Guizhou, China. International Journal of Coal Geology, 57, 49–61.
The authors thankfully acknowledge the Departments of Geology and Departments of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, for extending the facilities.
Publisher’s Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Rajak, P.K., Singh, V.K., Singh, A.L. et al. Study of minerals and selected environmentally sensitive elements in Kapurdi lignites of Barmer Basin, Rajasthan, western India: implications to environment. Geosci J 24, 441–458 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12303-019-0029-4
- Kapurdi lignites
- Barmer basin