Did the 12 September 2016 Gyeongju, South Korea earthquake cause surface deformation?

  • Sun-Cheon Park
  • Hyojin Yang
  • Duk Kee Lee
  • Eun Hee Park
  • Won-Jin Lee
Article
  • 16 Downloads

Abstract

An earthquake with a local magnitude (ML) of 5.8 occurred on 12 September 2016 near Gyeongju, South Korea. This earthquake was the largest event on record in Korea since 1978. A relatively large (ML 5.1) foreshock preceded the main shock by about 50 min, and numerous aftershocks followed. In this study, we performed seismological and geodetic analyses to determine the possibility of the occurrence of surface deformation. Estimated surface deformation using seismological analysis was less than 1 cm, and that observed by geodetic (GNSS and InSAR) data was within the range of error. These results indicate that no surface deformation occurred due to this earthquake. This may have been due to relatively small size of the fault plane (4 km × 4 km), moderate moment magnitude (Mw 5.5) or deep focal depth (15.4 km) of the earthquake.

Key words

2016 Gyeongju earthquake moderate earthquake surface deformation geodetic method 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, D.L., 1989, Theory of the Earth. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Boston, 366 p.Google Scholar
  2. Berardino, P., Fornaro, G., Lanari, R., and Sansoti, E., 2002, A new algorithm for surface deformation monitoring based on small baseline Differential SAR Interferograms. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 40, 2375–2383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brandt, M.B.C. and Saunders, I., 2011, New regional moment tensors in South Africa. Seismological Research Letters, 82, 69–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brune, J., 1971, Correction (to Brune(1970)). Journal of Geophysical Research, 76, 5002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chang, E.T.Y. and Chao, B.F., 2011, Co-seismic surface deformation of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake: Spatio-temporal EOF analysis of GPS data. Earth, Planets and Space, 63, 649–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clark, D., McPherson, A., Allen, T., and Kool, M.D., 2014, Coseismic surface deformation caused by the 23 March 2012 Mw 5.4 Ernabella (Pukatja) Earthquake, Central Australia: Implications for fault scaling relations in cratonic settings. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 104, 24–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Donnellan, A., GrantLudwig, L., Parker, J.W., Rundle, J.B., Wang, J., Pierce, M., Blewitt, G., and Hensley, S., 2015, Potential for a large earthquake near Los Angeles inferred from the 2014 La Habra earthquake. Earth and Space Science, 2, 378–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fattahi, H., Amelung, F., Chaussard, E., and Wdowinski, S., 2015, Coseismic and postseismic deformation due to the 2007 M5.5 Ghazaband fault earthquake, Balochistan, Pakistan. Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 3305–3312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferretti, A., Prati, C., and Rocca F., 2000, Non-linear subsidence rate estimation using permanent scatterers in differential SAR interferometry. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 38, 2202–2212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fujiwara, S., Nishimura, T., Murakami, M., Nakagawa, H., and Tobita, M., 2000, 2.5-D surface deformation of M6.1 earthquake near Mt Iwata detected by SAR interferometry. Geophysical Research Letters, 27, 2049–2052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fujiwara, S., Yarai, H., Kobayashi, T., Morishita, Y., Nakano, T., Miyahara, B., Nakai, H., Miura, Y., Ueshiba, H., Kakiage, Y., and Une, H., 2016, Small-displacement linear surface ruptures of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence detected by ALOS-2 SAR interferometry. Earth, Planets and Space, 68. doi:10.1186/s40623-016-0534-xGoogle Scholar
  12. Fukuyama, E., and Dreger, D., 2000, Performance test of an automated moment tensor determination system for the future “Tokai” earthquake. Earth Planets Space, 52, 383–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jo, N.D. and Baag, C.-E., 2001, Stochastic prediction of strong ground motions in Southeastern Korea. Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea, 5, 17–26.Google Scholar
  14. Jung, H.-S., Lee, D.-T., Lu, Z., and Won, J.-S., 2013, Ionospheric correction of SAR interferograms by multiple-aperture interferometry. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 51, 3191–3199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jung, H.-S. and Lee, W.-J., 2015, An Improvement of Ionospheric Phase Correction by Multiple-Aperture Interferometry (MAI). IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 53, 4952–4960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kim, J.W., Kwon, J.H., and Lee, J.S., 2008, The analysis of the GPS data processing of the NGII CORS by Bernese and TGO. Journal of the Korean society of survey, geodesy, photogrammetry, and cartography, 26, 549–559.Google Scholar
  17. Kim, Y., Rhie, J., Kang, T.-S., Kim, K.-H., Kim, M., and Lee, S.-J., 2016a, The 12 September 2016 Gyeongju earthquakes: 1. Observation and remaining questions. Geosciences Journal, 20, 747–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim, K.-H., Kang, T.-S., Rhie, J., Kim, Y., Park, Y., Kang, S.Y., Han, M., Kim, J., Park, J., Kim, M., Kong, C., Lee, H., Park, E., Park, H., Lee, S.-J., Cho, S., Woo, J.-U., Lee, S.-H., and Kim, J., 2016b, The 12 September 2016 Gyeongju earthquakes: 2. Temporary seismic network for monitoring aftershocks. Geosciences Journal, 20, 753–757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee, W.J., Jung, H.S., Chae, S.H., and Baek, W.K., 2015, Enhancement of Ionospheric Correction Method Based on Multiple Aperture Interferometry. Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, 13, 101–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lee, W.J., Lu, Z., Jung, H.S., and Ji, L., 2017, Measurement of small coseismic deformation field from multi-temporal SAR interferometry: Application to the 19 September 2004 Huntoon valley earthquake. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk. doi: 10.1080/19475705. 2017.1310764Google Scholar
  21. Lohman, R.B., Simons, M., and Savage, B., 2002, Location and mechanism of the Little Skull Mountain earthquake as constrained by satellite radar interferometry and seismic waveform modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107. doi:10.1029/2001JB000627Google Scholar
  22. Nakano, T., Kobayashi, T., Yoshida, K., and Fujiwara, S., 2016, Field survey of non-tectonic surface displacements caused by the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake around Aso Valley. Bulletin of the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, 64, 47–54.Google Scholar
  23. Negusini, M., Mancini, F., Gandolfi, S., and Capra, A., 2005, Terra Nova Bay GPS permanent station (Antarctica): data quality and first attempt in the evaluation of regional displacement. Journal of Geodynamics, 39, 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Okada, Y., 1992, Internal deformation due to shear and tensile faults in a half-space. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 82, 1018–1040.Google Scholar
  25. Ozawa, T., Fujita, E., and Ueda, H., 2016, Crustal deformation associated with the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake and its effect on the magma system of Aso volcano. Earth, Planets and Space, 68. doi:10.1186/s40623-016-0563-5Google Scholar
  26. Seeber, G., 2003, Satellite Geodesy (2nd edition). Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 589 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Torge, W., 2001, Geodesy (3rd edition). Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 416 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Udías, A., 1999, Principles of Seismology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 475 p.Google Scholar
  29. Wessel, P. and Smith, W.H.F., 1998, New, improved version of the Generic Mapping Tools released. Eos Transactions American Geophysical Union, 79, 579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Weston, J., Ferreira, A.M.G., and Funning, G.J., 2011, Global compilation of interferometric synthetic aperture radar earthquake source models: 1. Comparisons with seismic catalogs. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, B08408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yang, H.J., Park, S.-C., and Lee, W.J., 2016, Crustal deformation on the Korea peninsula based on GNSS data during 2004–2015. Proceedings of the IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, July 10–15, 2016, Beijing, p. 5785–5788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Association of Korean Geoscience Societies and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sun-Cheon Park
    • 1
  • Hyojin Yang
    • 1
  • Duk Kee Lee
    • 1
  • Eun Hee Park
    • 1
  • Won-Jin Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Earthquake and Volcano Research Division, Earthquake and Volcano CenterKorea Meteorological AdministrationSeoulRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations