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A wound inducible chalcone synthase gene from Dysoxylum gotadhora (DbCHS) regulates flavonoid biosynthesis

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Chalcone synthase (CHS) is a type III polyketide synthase and a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway that generates precursors for flavonoid biosynthesis. The tree species D. gotadhora is known for having an abundance of rohitukine, which has anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects. In this study, we used the leaves of D. gotadhora to clone CHS gene (DbCHS). The 1188-bp open reading frame (ORF) was part of the 1373-bp full-length DbCHS clone. Compared to other parts of the plant, DbCHS is expressed more in the leaves and fruits. This is linked to anti-microbial action against a panel of microbes in these tissues. The leaves and seeds extracts inhibit Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans. When a plant is hurt, it leaves its tissues open to attack by microbes. To protect themselves, plants often make chemicals that kill microbes. We found that wounding had a big effect on the production of DbCHS. Based on these tests and the results of phylogenetic analysis and molecular docking, we believe that DbCHS is a wound-inducible enzyme that is needed to make flavonoids, which may give the plant antimicrobial properties.

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Chalcone synthase


PolyKetide synthase


Rapid amplification of cDNA ends


Quercetin equivalent


Open reading frame


UnTranslated regions


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VM and RC are thankful to CSIR for JRF and SRF fellowships. NK is thankful to ICMR for JRF and SRF fellowships. SGG acknowledges financial support from CSIR Phytopharma Mission: HCP038.

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VM carried out most of the experimental work. NK quantified total flavonoids and determined the antimicrobial activity of extracts. VLJ did the molecular modelling and docking analysis and prepared the figures. RC wrote the manuscript. VLJ assisted in writing. SGG designed the study; supervised VM, NK, VLJ and RC, as well as corrected the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Sumit G. Gandhi.

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Supplementary Fig. 1

Sequence information of DbCHS from D. gotadhora: The ATG start codon at position 54, the TAA stop codon at position 1241 are highlighted in green and red color, respectively; 5′ and 3′ UTRs are shown in blue boxes; Conserved motifs: MMYQGCF, LFGDG, WIAHPGGPA, GNMSSA and FGFGPGL are encircled; Letters in bold-face indicate strictly conserved amino acids (JPG 5773 KB)

Supplementary Fig. 2

Multiple sequence alignment of DbCHS protein sequence, with the homologous proteins from other species: D. longon (GenBank Acc. No. 346577498), D. albus (GenBank Acc. No. 54311699), L. chinensis (GenBank Acc. No. 283827864) and T. cacao (GenBank Acc. No. 590647992); Conserved amino acid residues: Cys164, His303 and Asn336 of CHN triad are highlighted in a black box (JPG 7965 KB)

Supplementary Fig. 3 a

Antimicrobial activities of extracts of D. gotadhora (at 10 mg/mL) against various microbes – BS - Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 121), BC - Bacillus cereus (IIIM 25), KP- Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC 75388), SP - Streptococcus pyogenes (MTCC 442), SA - Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96), and CA - Candida albicans (ATCC 90028); here 1: Leaf extract, 2: root extract, 3: stem extract, 4: antibiotic control at 0.25 µg/mL (ciprofloxacin for bacteria and clotrimazole for fungi) 5: ripe fruit, 6: unripe fruit b Activities of antibiotic controls (ciprofloxacin for bacteria and clotrimazole for fungi) at different concentrations against microbes; here 1: 0.5 µg/mL, 2: 1 µg/mL, 3: 2 µg/mL (PDF 411 KB)

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Mahajan, V., Chouhan, R., Jamwal, V.L. et al. A wound inducible chalcone synthase gene from Dysoxylum gotadhora (DbCHS) regulates flavonoid biosynthesis. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 29, 959–969 (2023).

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