Different parasites cause severe lose in quantity and quality of crops. Many parasites develop haustorial cells and stylets that penetrate the host using secreted enzymes and mechanical pressure. Cysteine proteases are pre-pro-enzyme produced by parasites that are essential for normal parasitism. Papain is also a kind of cysteine proteases such that its propeptide segment has inhibitory properties and limits the protease activity of papain. To investigate the inhibitory effects of papain propeptide on some parasite proteases, we cloned inhibitory propeptide of papain of Ipomoea batatas, and enzymatic fragments of Diabrotica virgifera cathepsin L-like protease-1, Meloidogyne incognita cathepsin L-like protease 1, Heterodera glycines cysteine protease-1, Cuscuta chinesis cysteine protease and Orobanche cernua cysteine protease. After purification of recombinant inhibitory propeptide and enzymatic fragments, the inhibition activity of propeptide on cysteine proteases was measured. Finally inhibitory propeptide was transformed into tomato and transgenic plants resistance to parasites (bioassay) were examined. We demonstrated papain-propeptide inhibits cysteine protease of mentioned parasites. In transgenic tomato plants, papain-inhibitory propeptide effectively interrupted haustoria development. Haustoria-digitate cells of dodder could not differentiate and develop into the phloem and xylem hyphae on transgenic tomatoes. Parasites grown on transgenic tomatoes showed reduction in vigor and productivity due to defective connection of haustoria. Lower ratio of female nematodes and a decrease of nematode egg mass per transgenic line indicated biocontrol of nematode. The changes in growth factors of parasite challenged transgenic lines relative to controls, indicates the efficacy of papain propeptide in control of parasitism.
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The research is partially supported by the Bu Ali Sina University.
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Saify Nabiabad, H., Amini, M. & Kianersi, F. Ipomoea batatas: papain propeptide inhibits cysteine protease in main plant parasites and enhances resistance of transgenic tomato to parasites. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 25, 933–943 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12298-019-00675-3
- Cuscuta chinesis
- Papain protease