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24-epibrassinolide and spermidine alleviate Mn stress via the modulation of root morphology, stomatal behavior, photosynthetic attributes and antioxidant defense in Brassica juncea


Brassinosteroids and polyamines are generally used to surpass different abiotic stresses like heavy metal toxicity in plants. The current study was conducted with an aim that 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and/or spermidine (Spd) could modify root morphology, movement of stomata, cell viability, photosynthetic effectiveness, carbonic anhydrase and antioxidant enzyme activities in Brassica juncea under manganese (Mn) stress (30 or 150 mg kg−1 soil). EBL (10−8 M) and/or Spd, (1.0 mM) were applied to the foliage of B. juncea plants at 35 days after sowing (DAS), grown in the presence of Mn (30 or 150 mg kg−1 soil). High Mn concentration (150 mg kg−1 soil) altered root morphology, affected stomatal movement, reduced the viability of cells and photosynthetic effectiveness and increased the production of reactive oxygen species (O ·−2 and H2O2) in the leaves and antioxidant defense system of B. juncea at 45 DAS. Furthermore, exogenous treatment of EBL and Spd under stress and stress- free conditions improved the aforesaid traits while decreased the O ·−2 and H2O2 production. Therefore, EBL and Spd could be applied to the foliage of B. juncea plants for the better growth under metal stress.

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Abscisic acid


Analysis of variance




Carbonic anhydrase






Intercellular CO2 concentration




Days after sowing


Double distilled water


Transpiration rate




Electron conductivity


Electrolyte leakage




Stomatal conductance




Heavy metals


Least significant difference




Nitrate reductase








Reactive oxygen species


Salicylic acid


Scanning electron microscopy


Superoxide dismutase




Soil and plant analysis development




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Anjuman Hussain is thankful to UGC (New Delhi) India for providing the research fellowship. We are also grateful to University Sophisticated Instrumentation Facility (USIF) A.M.U., Aligarh for SEM analysis.


Funding was provided by UGC New Delhi, India, in the form of Non-NET fellowship (Grant No. gj1136) from Dec. 07, 2015.

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Correspondence to Qazi Fariduddin.

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Hussain, A., Nazir, F. & Fariduddin, Q. 24-epibrassinolide and spermidine alleviate Mn stress via the modulation of root morphology, stomatal behavior, photosynthetic attributes and antioxidant defense in Brassica juncea. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 25, 905–919 (2019).

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  • Epibrassinolide
  • Manganese
  • Photosynthesis
  • Root morphology
  • Spermidine
  • Stomata