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Arabidopsis mutant plants with diverse defects in polyamine metabolism show unequal sensitivity to exogenous cadaverine probably based on their spermine content

Abstract

Arabidopsis plants do not synthesize the polyamine cadaverine, a five carbon-chain diamine and structural analog of putrescine. Mutants defective in polyamine metabolic genes were exposed to exogenous cadaverine. Spermine-deficient spms mutant grew well while a T-DNA insertion mutant (pao4-1) of polyamine oxidase (PAO) 4 was severely inhibited in root growth compared to wild type (WT) or other pao loss-of-function mutants. To understand the molecular basis of this phenomenon, polyamine contents of WT, spms and pao4-1 plants treated with cadaverine were analyzed. Putrescine contents increased in all the three plants, and spermidine contents decreased in WT and pao4-1 but not in spms. Spermine contents increased in WT and pao4-1. As there were good correlations between putrescine (or spermine) contents and the degree of root growth inhibition, effects of exogenously added putrescine and spermine were examined. Spermine mimicked the original phenomenon, whereas high levels of putrescine evenly inhibited root growth, suggesting that cadaverine-induced spermine accumulation may explain the phenomenon. We also tested growth response of cadaverine-treated WT and pao4-1 plants to NaCl and found that spermine-accumulated pao4-1 plant was not NaCl tolerant. Based on the results, the effect of cadaverine on Arabidopsis growth and the role of PAO during NaCl stress are discussed.

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Abbreviations

ACL5:

T-Spm synthase

ADC:

Arginine decarboxylase

Cad:

Cadaverine

PAO:

Polyamine oxidase

PAs:

Polyamines

Put:

Putrescine

SAMDC:

S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase

Spd:

Spermidine

SPDS:

Spd synthase

Spm:

Spermine

SPMS:

Spm synthase

T-Spm:

Thermospermine

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Acknowledgments

We thank to Prof. Taku Takahashi for providing us seeds of spms and acl5 mutants. This work was supported in part by Grant-in-Aids from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) to TK (21380063), by the research funding programme “LOEWE -Landes-Offensive zur Entwicklung Wissenschaftlich-ökonomischer Exzellenz” of Hesse’s Ministry of Higher Education, Research, and the Arts to TB, and by the grants from The Saito Gratitude Foundation to GHMS (2011) and to DWK (2012) and by Sasagawa Scientific Research Grant to DWK. TL is financially supported by China Scholarship Council. GHMS is a recipient of MEXT fellowship.

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Correspondence to Tomonobu Kusano.

Additional information

Taibo Liu and Hayato Dobashi contributed equally to this work.

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Figure S1
figure 9

Schematic structure of AtPAO4 gene and the T-DNA insertion site in SALK_133599 line. A. The position of T-DNA insertion of pao4-1 (SALK_133599) is shown as a white rectangle. Box, exon; line, intron; white box, untranslated region; black box, coding region. B. Transcript levels of AtPAO4 in WT (Col-0) and pao4-1 plants. AtPAO4 transcripts were detected by qRT-PCR using total RNAs extracted from 14-day-old seedlings and normalized using CBP20 as an internal control. (JPEG 126 kb)

Table S1

The primers used for qRT-PCR analysis. (DOCX 16 kb)

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Liu, T., Dobashi, H., Kim, D.W. et al. Arabidopsis mutant plants with diverse defects in polyamine metabolism show unequal sensitivity to exogenous cadaverine probably based on their spermine content. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 20, 151–159 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12298-014-0227-5

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12298-014-0227-5

Keywords

  • Arabidopsis
  • Cadaverine
  • NaCl response
  • Polyamine oxidase
  • Putrescine
  • Spermidine
  • Spermine