Skip to main content

Photosynthetic response of Cannabis sativa L., an important medicinal plant, to elevated levels of CO2

Abstract

The effect of elevated CO2 concentrations (545 and 700 μmol mol−1) on gas exchange and stomatal response of four high Δ9-THC yielding varieties of Cannabis sativa (HPM, K2, MX and W1) was studied to assess their response to the rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. In general, elevated CO2 concentration (700 μmol mol−1) significantly (p < 0.05) stimulated net photosynthesis (P N), water use efficiency (WUE) and internal CO2 concentration (C i), and suppressed transpiration (E) and stomatal conductance (g s) as compared to the ambient CO2 concentration (390 μmol mol−1) in all the varieties whereas, the effect of 545 μmol mol−1 CO2 concentration was found insignificant (p < 0.05) on these parameters in most of the cases. No significant changes (p < 0.05) in the ratio of internal to the ambient CO2 concentration (C i/C a) was observed in these varieties under both the elevated CO2 concentrations (545 and 700 μmol mol−1). An average increase of about 48 %, 45 %, 44 % and 38 % in P N and, about 177 %, 157 %, 191 % and 182 % in WUE was observed due to elevated CO2 (700 μmol mol−1) as compared to ambient CO2 concentration in HPM, K2, MX and W1 varieties, respectively. The higher WUE under elevated CO2 conditions in Cannabis sativa, primarily because of decreased stomatal conductance and subsequently the transpiration rate, may enable this species to survive under expected harsh greenhouse effects including elevated CO2 concentration and drought conditions. The higher P N, WUE and nearly constant C i/C a ratio under elevated CO2 concentrations in this species reflect a close coordination between its stomatal and mesophyll functions.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

Abbreviations

C a :

Ambient CO2 Concentration

C i :

Intercellular CO2 Concentration

E :

Transpiration

g s :

Stomatal Conductance

P N :

Net Photosynthesis Rate

WUE :

Water Use Efficiency

References

  • Bag N, Chandra S, Sharma S, Palni LMS (2000) Micropropagation of Dev-Ringal (Thamnocalamus spathiflorus [(Trin.) Munro]—A temperate Bamboo, and comparison of in vitro and conventionally propagated plants. Plant Sci 156:125–135

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bazzaz FA, Garbutt K (1988) The response of annuals in competitive neighborhoods: effect of elevated CO2. Ecol 69:937–946

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Berry J, Downton WJS (1982) Environmental regulation of photosynthesis. In: Govindjee (ed) Photosynthesis, Vol. II, Development, carbon metabolism and plant productivity. Academic, New York, pp 263–343

    Google Scholar 

  • Bowes G (1993) Facing the inevitable: plant and increasing atmospheric CO2. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 44:309–332

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Brenneisen R, Egli A, ElSohly MA, Henn V, Spiess Y (1996) The effect of orally and rectally administered Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity. A pilot study with two patients. Int J Clin Pharmacol Therap 34:446

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ceulemans R, Jiang XN, Shao BY (1995) Effect of elevated CO2 on growth, biomass production and nitrogen allocation of two populous clones. J Biogeogr 22:261–268

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chandra S, Lata H, Khan IA, ElSohly MA (2008) Photosynthetic response of Cannabis sativa L. to variations in photosynthetic photon flux densities, temperature and CO2 conditions. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 14:299–306

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cure JD, Acock B (1986) Crop response to carbon dioxide doubling: a literature survey. Agric For Meteorol 38:127–145

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eamus D, Berryman DA, Duff GA (1993) Assimilation, stomatal conductance, specific leaf area and chlorophyll responses to elevated CO2 of Maranthes corymbosa, a tropical monsoon rain forest species. Aust J Plant Physiol 20:741–755

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Grinspoon L, Bakalar JB (1993) Marijuana, the forbidden medicine. Yale University Press, New Haven

    Google Scholar 

  • Houghton JT, Meira-Filho LG, Calander BA, Harris N, Kattenburg A, Maskll K (1996) IPCC Climatic Change Assessment 1995. The science of climatic change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Jarvis AJ, Mansfield TA, Devis WJ (1999) Stomatal behavior, photosynthesis and transpiration under rising CO2. Plant Cell Environ 22:639–648

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jones HG (1992) Plants and microclimate: quantitative approach to environmental plant physiology. Vegetatio 104:193–209

    Google Scholar 

  • Joshi SC (2006) Photosynthetic response of Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) Kuntze, A multipurpose and monotype plant, to different levels of CO2. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 12:241–245

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Joshi SC, Palni LMS (1998) Clonal variation in temperature response of photosynthesis in tea. Plant Sci 13:225–232

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Joshi SC, Chandra S, Palni LMS (2007) Differences in photosynthetic characteristics and accumulation of osmoprotectants in sapling of evergreen plants grown inside and outside a greenhouse during the winter season. Photosynthetica 45:594–600

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Juurola E (2003) Biochemical acclimation pattern of Betula pandula and Pinus sylvestris seedlings to elevated CO2 concentration. Tree Physiol 23:85–95

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kimball BA (1983) Carbon dioxide and agricultural yield: an assemblage and analysis of 430 prior observations. Agron J 75:779–788

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mattes RD, Egelman K, Shaw LM, ElSohly MA (1994) Cannabinoids appetite stimulation. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 49:187–195

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mauna Loa Observatory–MLO, Hawaii -Trends in atmospheric carbon dioxide, http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends

  • Minorsky PV (2002) Global warming-effect on plants. Plant Physiol 129:1421–1422

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Morison JIL (1993) Response of plants to CO2 under water limited conditions. Vegetatio 104/105:193209

    Google Scholar 

  • Pertwee RG (2006) Cannabinoid pharmacology: the first 66 years. Br J Pharmacol Chemother 147:163–171

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Poorter H (1993) Inter-specific variation in the growth response of plant to an elevated CO2 concentration. Vegetatio 104:77–97

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pounds JA, Puschendorf R (2004) Clouded futures. Nature 427:107–109

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sage RF, Sharkey TD, Seemann JR (1989) Acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO2 in five C3 species. Plant Physiol 89:590–596

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sanz-Elorza M, Dana ED, Gonzalez A, Sobrino E (2003) Changes in the high-mountain vegetation of the central Iberian peninsula and a probable sign of global warming. Ann Bot 92:273–280

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thomas RB, Lewis JD, Strain BR (1994) Effect of leaf nutrient status on photosynthetic capacity in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedling grown in elevated CO2. Tree Physiol 14:947–960

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zelitch I (1975) Improving the efficiency of photosynthesis. Science 188:626–633

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang JW, Marshall JD, Fins L (1996) Correlated population differences in dry matter accumulation, allocation and water use efficiency in three sympatric conifer species. Forensic Sci 42:242–249

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), National Institute of Health (NIH), Department of Health and Human Services, USA, Contract No. N01DA-10-7773.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Suman Chandra.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Chandra, S., Lata, H., Khan, I.A. et al. Photosynthetic response of Cannabis sativa L., an important medicinal plant, to elevated levels of CO2 . Physiol Mol Biol Plants 17, 291–295 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12298-011-0066-6

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12298-011-0066-6

Keywords

  • Cannabis sativa
  • Cannabaceae
  • Elevated CO2
  • Photosynthesis