Skip to main content

Studies on antidermatophytic activity of waste leaves of Curcuma longa L.

Abstract

During antidermatophytic screening of some essential oils, Curcuma longa L. exhibited the strongest antifungal activity, completely inhibiting the mycelial growth of ringworm, caused by the fungi- Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The essential oil from leaves of Curcuma longa was fungicidal at 2.5 μl/ml at which it tolerated heavy doses of inoculum. The fungicidal activity of the oil was thermostable up to 80 °C and self life up to 24 months in storage. The oil also showed a broad fungitoxic spectrum, inhibiting the mycelial growth of other fungi, viz., Epidermophyton floccosum, M. nanum, T. rubrum, T. violaceum. Moreover, up to 5 % concentration it did not exhibit any adverse effect on mammalian skins. The oil has been formulated in the form of an ointment, 1 % w/v and subjected to topical testing on patients of the Out Patient Department (OPD) at Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad. Patients were selected on the basis of KOHpositive results and diagnosed tenia corporis. After the second week of treatment, all patients were KOH- negative. At the end of medication, 75 % of patients recovered completely while 15 % showed significant improvement from the disease. The ointment thus, can be exploited commercially after ongoing successful clinical trials. Relationship of the dermatophytes to the toxicity of the oil vis-a-vis phylogeny using molecular data of the pathogens have also been discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Anon (2001). The Wealth of India-An Encyclopedia of India’s Raw Material Resources. National Institute of Science communication, CSIR ISBN: 81-85038-00-7 (set) Vol. 2 (Cl-Cy)

  2. Beye F (1978). Insecticides from the vegetable kingdom. Plant Res. Dev. 7: 13–31.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Chandra D and Gupta SS (1972). Anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activity of volatile oil of Curcuma longa (Haldi). Indian J. Med. Res. 60: 138–142.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Chaturvedi R, Dikshit A and Dixit SN (1987). Adenocalymma allicea, a new source of natural fungitoxicant. Trop. Agric (Trinidad) 64: 318–322.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Clevenger JF (1928). Apparatus for the determination of volatile oil. J. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 17: 346.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Dikshit A and Dixit SN (1982). Cedrus oil — a promising antifugal agent. Indian Perfum. 26: 226–227.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Felsenstein J (1985). Confidence limits on phylogenies:an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution. 39: 783–791.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Felsenstein J (1995). PHYLIP (Phylogeny Inference Package), version 3.5c. Seattle: University of Washington.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Garber RH and Houston BR (1959). An inhibitor of Verticillium alboatrum in cotton seed. Phytopathology; 49: 449–450.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Gouy M (1995). NJPLOT. Lyon, France: Univ. of Lyon 1.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Grover RK and Moore JD (1962). Toxicometric studies of fungicides against brown rot organisms Sclerotinia fructicola and S. laxa. Phytopath. 52: 876–880.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Higgins D (1996). Clustal W, Version 1.6. Cambridge, United Kingdom: The European Bioinformatics Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Inouye S, Nishiyama Y, Uchida K and Yamaguchi YHH (2007). The vapor activity of oregano, perilla, tea tree, lavender, clove, and geranium oils against a Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a closed box. Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 12(6): 349–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Inouye S, Uchida K and Abe S (2006). The Antimicrobial Activity of the Vapor of Essential Oils against Trichophyton mentagrophytes using a Shoe Foot Model. Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 12(4): 210–216.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Jain S, Shrivastava S, Nayak S and Sumbhate S (2007). PHCOG MAG.: Plant Review Recent trends in Curcuma longa Linn. Pharmacognosy Reviews 1(1): 119–128.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Kaul VK, Nigam SS and Dhar KL (1976). Antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of Artemissia ibsintbium Linn., A. vestita Wall. and A. vulgaris Linn. Indian J. Pharm. 38: 21–23.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Lahariya AK and Rao JT (1979). In-vitro antimicrobial studies of the essential oil of Cyperus scarious and Ocimum basilicum. Indian Drugs 16: 150–152.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Longenau EE (1948). The examination and analysis of essential oil, synthetics and isolates. In Guenther (ed.). The Essential Oil. Robert E. Kruger Publishing Co., Hunting ton, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Makimura K, Mochizuki T, Hasagawa A, Uchida K and Yamaguchi H (1998). Phylogenetic classification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex strains based on DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 regions. J Clin Microbiol. 36: 2629–2633.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Makimura K, Tamura Y, Mochizuki T, Hasegawa A, Tajiri Y, Hanazawa R, Uchida K, Saito H and Yamaguchi H (1999). Phylogenetic Classification and Species Identification of Dermatophyte Strains Based on DNA Sequences of Nuclear Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 Regions. J Clin Microbiol. 37(4): 920–924.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Mochizuki T, Watanabe S, Kawasaki M, Tanabe H and Ishizaki HJ (2002). A Japanese case of Tenia corporis caused by Arthroderma benhamiae. J. Dermatol., 29(4): 221–225.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Pandey MC, Sharma JR and Dikshit A (1996). Antifungal evaluation of the essential oil of Cymbopogan pendulus (Nees ex steud.) Wats a parman. Flavour and Fragrance. 11: 257–260.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Park MJ, Gwak KS, Yang I, Choi WS, Jo HJ, Chang JW, Jeung EB and Choi IG (2007) Antifungal activities of the essential oils in Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. Et Perry and Leptospermum petersonii Bailey and their constituents against various dermatophytes. J Microbiol. 45(5): 460–465.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Pyun MS and Shin S (2006). Antifungal effects of the volatile oils from Allium plants against Trichophyton species and synergism of the oils with ketoconazole. Phytomedicine 13(6): 394–400.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Roxburgh AC and Borrie P (1973). Roxburgh’s common skin diseases. XIIth edition. The English Language Book Society and H.K. Lewis and Co. Ltd. London.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Saito N and Nei M (1987). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol. 4: 406–425.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Shahi SK, Shukla AC, Bajaj AK, Banerjee U, Rimek D, Midgely G and Dikshit A (2000). Broad spectrum herbal therapy against superficial fungal infections. Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology 13: 60–64.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Shahi SK, Shukla AC, Bajaj AK, Midgely G and Dikshit A (1999). Board spectrum antimycotic drug for the control of fungal infections in human beings. Curr. Sci., 74: 836–839.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Shahi SK, Shukla AC and Pandey MC (1996). In-vitro and in-vivo studies of Trachyspermum ammi against human pathogenic fungi; Proc. of the 90 th All India Botanical Conf., (abs.); pp-75.

  30. Silva MRR, Oliveira JGJ, Fernandes OFL, Passos XS, Costa CR, Souza LKH, Lemos JA and Paula JR (2005). Antifungal activity of Ocimum gratissimum towards dermatophytes. Mycoses 48(3): 172–175.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Sim Y and Shin S (2008). Combinatorial anti-trichophyton effects of Ligusticum chuanxiong essential oil components with antibiotics. Arch Pharm Re. 4: 497–502.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Sokovic MD, Vukojevic J, Marin PD, Brkic DD and Vajs V (2009). Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities Molecules 14: 238–249.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Stock R (1981). How effective are antimycotic drugs. Pharm. Int. 2: 232–236.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Anupam Dikshit.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Pandey, K.P., Mishra, R.K., Kamran, A. et al. Studies on antidermatophytic activity of waste leaves of Curcuma longa L.. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 16, 177–185 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12298-010-0019-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Antidermatophytic
  • Curcuma longa
  • essential oil
  • microsporum gypseum
  • tenia corporis
  • trichophyton mentagrophytes