Skip to main content

Psidium guajava Leaf Extracts and Their Quercetin Protect HepG2 Cell Lines Against CCL4 Induced Cytotoxicity

Abstract

The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro cytoprotective effects of Psidium guajava and their isolated quercetin fraction to reduce the CCl4 (carbon tetrachloride) induced toxicity in HepG2 cell lines (Hepatocellular carcinoma G2). Silymarin was used as a standard drug to compare the protective effects of plant extracts in infected cell lines. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay, cell viability assay, leakage parameters [Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)], lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were used to find out the protection of human derived HepG2 cells against CCl4-induced damage. The levels of cytotoxicity, viability and GSH were reduced. While the activities of AST, ALT, LDH and lipid peroxidation was increased in CCl4-treated groups. The treatment of P. guajava and their isolated quercetin fractions (100, 200, 300 µg/mL) decreased the elevated levels of all these parameters. The results of the present study suggest that the ethanolic extract of P. guajava leaf and their isolated quercetin fractions can able to reduce the CCl4-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell lines.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. 1.

    Valentin-Severin I, Le-Hegarat L, Lhuguenot JC, Le Bon AM, Chagnon MC. Use of HepG2 cell line for direct or indirect mutagens screening: comparative investigation between comet and micronucleus assays. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen. 2003;536(1):79–90.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Salvadori DM, Ribeiro LR, Natarajan AT. The anticlastogenicity of β-carotene evaluated on human hepatoma cells. Mutat Res Lett. 1993;303(4):151–6.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Krithika R, Verma RJ. Ameliorative potential of Phyllanthus amarus against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. Acta Pol Pharm. 2009;66(579):e83.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Gutiérrez RM, Mitchell S, Solis RV. Psidium guajava: a review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;117(1):1–27.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Morais-Braga MFB, Carneiro JNP, Machado AJT, Santos ATL, Sales DL, Lima LF, Figueredo FG, Coutinho HDM. Psidium guajava L., from ethnobiology to scientific evaluation: elucidating bioactivity against pathogenic microorganisms. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;194:1140–52.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Tachakittirungrod S, Ikegami F, Okonogi S. Antioxidant active principles isolated from Psidium guajava grown in Thailand. Sci Pharm. 2007;75(4):179–93.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Ghosh R, Tiwary BK, Kumar A, Chakraborty R. Guava leaf extract inhibits quorum-sensing and Chromobacterium violaceum induced lysis of human hepatoma cells: whole transcriptome analysis reveals differential gene expression. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(9):e107703.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Vijayakumar K, Vijayaanand A. Protective effects of P. guajava and its isolated fraction on CCl4 induced oxidative stress. Res J Pharm Technol. 2016;9(8):1155–60.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Ahmadu AA, Hassan HS, Abubakar U, Akpulu IN. Flavonoid glycosides from Byrsocarpuscoccineus leaves. Schum and Thonn (Connaraceae). Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2007;4(3):257–60.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Harries HM, Fletcher ST, Duggan CM, Baker VA. The use of genomics technology to investigate gene expression changes in cultured human liver cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2001;15(4):399–405.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods. 1983;65(1–2):55–63.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Darzynkiewicz Z, Li X, Gong J. Assays of cell viability: discrimination of cells dying by apoptosis. Methods Cell Biol. 1994;41:15–38.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Wu D, Cederbaum AI. Development and properties of HepG2 cells that constitutively express CYP2E1. In: Nagy LE, editor. Alcohol. Methods in molecular biology. Vol. 447. Totowa: Humana Press; 2008. p. 137–50.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem. 1951;193(1):265–75.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Vijayakumar K, Rengarajan RL, Radhakrishnan R, Vijaya Anand A. Hypolipidemic effect of Psidium guajava leaf extract against hepatotoxicity in rats. Pharmacogn Mag Biol Pharm Bull. 2018;14(53):1–8.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Banaee M, Sureda A, Mirvaghefi AR, Rafei GR. Effects of long-term silymarin oral supplementation on the blood biochemical profile of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish Physiol Biochem. 2011;37(4):885–96.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    El-Ahmady SH, Ashour ML, Wink M. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils of Psidium guajava fruits and leaves. J Essent Oil Res. 2013;25(6):475–81.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Moon JY, Lee S, Jeong S, Kim JC, Ahn KS, Mosaddik A, Cho SK. Free radical-scavenging activities and cytoprotective effect of polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction of guava (Psidium cattleianum) leaves on H2O2-treated HepG2 Cell. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem. 2013;56(6):687–94.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Liu CW, Wang YC, Hsieh CC, Lu HC, Chiang WD. Guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) leaf extract promotes glucose uptake and glycogen accumulation by modulating the insulin signaling pathway in high-glucose-induced insulin-resistant mouse FL83B cells. Process Biochem. 2015;50(7):1128–35.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Ibrahim TA, El-Hela AA, Abd_Elhady NM, Abo-Elfetoh NM. Phytochemical composition, in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of seeds of Convolvulus arvensis Linn. Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2017;7(2):107–16.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Roy CK, Kamath JV, Asad M. Hepatoprotective activity of Psidium guajava Linn. Leaf extract. Indian J Exp Biol. 2006;44:305–11.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Shenoy KA, Somayaji SN, Bairy KL. Hepatoprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic injury in rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2001;33(4):260–6.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Aniya Y, Koyama T, Miyagi C, Miyahira M, Inomata C, Kinoshita S, Ichiba T. Free radical scavenging and hepatoprotective actions of the medicinal herb, Crassocephalum crepidioides from the Okinawa Islands. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005;28(1):19–23.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Udem SC, Madubunyi II, Okoye JO, Anika SM. Anti-hepatotoxic effects of the ethanolic extracts of Combretum dolichopetalum root bark and Morinda lucida leaf. Fitoterapia. 1997;68(1):21–5.

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Lee KW, Bode AM, Dong Z. Molecular targets of phytochemicals for cancer prevention. Nat Rev Cancer. 2011;11(3):211.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Russo M, Spagnuolo C, Tedesco I, Bilotto S, Russo GL. The flavonoid quercetin in disease prevention and therapy: facts and fancies. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;83(1):6–15.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Anju V, Mary Zachariah S. Phytochemical screening, isolation, antibacterial and anticancer activity studies of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn. Leaves by HPTLC analysis. Int J Pharma Bio Sci. 2017;8(2):12–29.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. Vijaya Anand.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Vijayakumar, K., Rengarajan, R.L., Radhakrishnan, R. et al. Psidium guajava Leaf Extracts and Their Quercetin Protect HepG2 Cell Lines Against CCL4 Induced Cytotoxicity. Ind J Clin Biochem 34, 324–329 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12291-018-0752-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Carbontetrachloride
  • Psidium guajava
  • Silymarin
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma G2
  • Aspartate aminotransferase
  • Alanine aminotransferase and Lactate dehydrogenase