Urinary Urea, Uric Acid and Hippuric Acid as Potential Biomarkers in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
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Urine is a proven source of metabolite biomarkers and has the potential to be a rapid, noninvasive, inexpensive, and efficient diagnostic tool for various human diseases. Despite these advantages, urine is an under-investigated source of biomarkers for multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective was to investigate the level of some urinary metabolites (urea, uric acid and hippuric acid) in patients with MS and correlate their levels to the severity of the disease, MS subtypes and MS treatment. The urine samples were collected from 73 MS patients-48 with RRMS and 25 with SPMS- and age matched 75 healthy controls. The values of urinary urea, uric acid and hippuric acid in MS patients were significantly decreased, and these metabolites in SPMS pattern showed significantly decrease than RRMS pattern. Also showed significant inverse correlation with expanded disability status scale and number of relapses. Accordingly, they may act as a potential urinary biomarkers for MS, and correlate to disease progression.
KeywordsUrinary Urea Uric acid Hippuric acid Multiple sclerosis
This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests related to the publication of this paper.
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