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Inflammatory Cytokines, Apoptotic, Tissue Injury and Remodeling Biomarkers in Children with Congenital Heart Disease


The present study aims to evaluate specific biomarkers involved in congenital heart disease (CHD), and whether there is a significant differences between the levels of these biomarkers in the cyanotic CHD (CCHD) and acyanotic CHD (ACHD). We prospectively measured tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), vasoendothelial growth factor (VEGF), troponin T, creatin kinase MB (CKMB), and Caspase 3 levels in 120 consecutive children with CHD (60 cyanotic and 60 a cyanotic with age 1:4 years), and 30 healthy control children. Significant elevated levels of inflammatory markers; TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP was detected in CHD, with percentage increase in cyanotic than a cyanotic subjects as compared to the normal one. Apoptotic biomarker; caspase 3 showed also significant increases in CCHD than ACHD. In addition, tissue injury mechanisms included troponin T and CKMB, exhibited significant increase in cyanotic than a cyanotic CHD. The present results demonstrate also, significant enhancement in remodeling process (VEGF), in cyanotic than a cyanotic patients. Thus, it could be concluded that, the children with CCHD were shown to have elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, caspase 3, troponin T, and CKMB as these biomarkers may implicated in cardiac functional status.

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Correspondence to Hanan F. Aly.

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Nassef, Y.E., Hamed, M.A. & Aly, H.F. Inflammatory Cytokines, Apoptotic, Tissue Injury and Remodeling Biomarkers in Children with Congenital Heart Disease. Ind J Clin Biochem 29, 145–149 (2014).

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  • Cyanotic heart disease
  • Acyanotic heart disease
  • TNF-α
  • IL-6
  • Caspase 3
  • VEGF