Prostate specific antigen (PSA) has long been used as a biological marker for prostatic cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that PSA synthesis can be induced by steroid hormones in several tissues of women. Menstrual cycle is regulated by the cyclic variation of estradiol and progesterone. This study was undertaken in order to study the correlation of serum PSA to both these corpus luteal hormones. 110 serum samples and 10 saliva samples were collected from healthy women aged 18–45 years of age having normal menstrual cycles. Active PSA DSL-9700 ultrasensitive kit with detection limit 0.001 ng/ml was used to analyze PSA. 38.2 % of all serum samples and 10 % of saliva samples had detectable concentrations of PSA. The serum PSA was highest during mid follicular phase (between 4th and 8th days of cycle). Variation in PSA levels seemed to follow the variations in progesterone with a lag period of 12–14 days, but did not appear to bear any relationship with the estradiol levels.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Clements J, Mukhtar A. Glandular kallikreins and prostate-specific antigen are expressed in the human endometrium. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994;178(6):1536–9.
Yu H, Diamandis EP. Prostate-specific antigen immuno reactivity in amniotic fluid. Clin Chem. 1995;41(2):204–10.
Nagar R, Msalati AA. Prostate specific antigen in amniotic fluid. Lib J Med Res. 2010;7(2):4–9.
Yu H, Diamandis EP. Prostate-specific antigen in milk of lactating women. Clin Chem. 1995;41(1):54–8.
Nagar R, Msalati AA. Prostate specific antigen in breast milk. Lib J Med Res. 2010;7(2):41–50.
Mannello F, Bianchi G, Gazzanelli G. Immunoreactivity of prostate-specific antigen in plasma and saliva of healthy women. Clin Chem. 1996;42(7):1110–1.
Mannello F, Condemi L, Cardinali A, Bianchi G, Gazzanelli G. High Concentration of prostate-specific antigen in urine of women receiving oral contraceptives. Clin Chem. 1998;44(1):181–3.
Mannello F, Malatesta M, Fusco E, Bianchi G, Cardinali A, Gazzanelli G. Biochemical characterization and immune-localization of prostate-specific antigen in human term placenta. Clin Chem. 1998;44(8):1735–7.
Malatesta M, Mannello F, Luchetti F, Marcheggiani F, Condemi L, Papa S, Gazzanelli G. Prostate-specific antigen synthesis and secretion by human placenta: a physiological kallikrein source during pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85(1):317–21.
Negri C, Tosi F, Dorizzi R, Fortunato A, Spiazzi GG, Muggeo M, Castello R, Moghetti P. Anti-androgen drugs lower serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in hirsute subject: evidence that serum PSA is a marker of androgen action in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;85(1):81–4.
Zarghami N, Grass L, Sauter ER, Diamandis EP. Prostate Specific antigen in serum during the menstrual cycle. Clin Chem. 1997;43(10):1862–7.
Aksoy H, Akçay F, Umudum Z, Yildirim AK, Memisogullari R. Changes of PSA concentrations in serum and saliva of healthy women during the menstrual cycle. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2002;32(1):31–6.
Honda SAA, Goldstein AP, Morita T, Sugiyama C, Cody L, Rios CN, Bhagavani NV. Prostate-specific antigen concentration in serum in acute illness. Clin Chem. 1996;42(11):1785–8.
Klee GG, Dodge LA, Zincke H, Oesterhng JE. Measurement of serum prostate specific antigen using IMx prostate specific antigen assay. J Urol. 1994;151:94–8.
Yu H, Diamandis EP. Measurement of serum prostate specific antigen levels in women and in prostatectomized men with an ultrasensitive immunoassay technique. J Urol. 1995;153:1004–8.
Filella X, Molina R, Alcover J, Carretero P, Ballesta AM. Detection of non-prostatic PSA in serum and non-serum sample from women. Int J Cancer. 1996;68:424–7.
Burelli A, Cionini R, Rinaldi E, Benelli E, Fiore E, Canale D, Bencivelli W, Nencetti C, Pinchera A, Pucci E. Serum PSA levels are not affected by the menstrual cycle or the menopause, but are increased in subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest. 2006;29(4):308–12.
Vessella RL, Noteboom J, Lange PH. Evaluation of the Abbott IMx automated immunoassay of prostate-specific antigen. Clin Chem. 1992;38(10):2044–54.
Rutanen EM, Pekonen F, Makinen T. Soluble 34 K binding protein inhibits the binding of insulin-like growth factor I to its cell receptors in human secretory phase endometrium: evidence for autocrine/paracrine regulation of growth factor action. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988;66(1):173–80.
Van Krieken JH. Prostate marker immunoreactivity in salivary gland neoplasms: a rare pitfall in immunohistochemistry. Am J Surg Pathol. 1993;17(4):410–4.
Miles LE, Lipschitz DA, Bieber CP, Cook JD. Measurement of Ferritin by a 2-site immunoradiometric assay. Anal Biochem. 1974;61(1):209–24.
Berson SA, Yalow RS. Clinical applications of radioimmunoassay of plasma parathyroid hormone. Am J Med. 1971;50(5):623–9.
Fochi RA, Perez APS, Bianchi CV, Rochel SS, Góes RM, Vilamaior PS, Taboga SR, Santos FC. Hormonal oscillations during the estrous cycle influence the morpho-physiology of the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) female prostate (Skene’s para urethral Glands). Biol Reprod. 2008;79(6):1084–91.
Black WP, Martin BT, Whyte WG. Plasma progesterone concentration as an index of ovulation and corpus luteum function in normal and gonadotropin stimulated menstrual cycle. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1972;79:363–72.
Zarghami N, Grass L, Diamandis EP. Steroid hormone regulation of prostate-specific antigen gene expression in breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 1977;75(4):579–88.
About this article
Cite this article
Nagar, R., Msalati, A.A. Changes in Serum PSA During Normal Menstrual Cycle. Ind J Clin Biochem 28, 84–89 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12291-012-0263-2