The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the physicochemical properties of saliva such as flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium level, total protein and total antioxidant levels in caries free and caries active children. The present study included one hundred and twenty healthy children who were divided into two groups; group I and group II comprising of age groups 7–10 and 11–14 years, respectively. Both the groups were then sub-divided equally according to gender. They were further divided into caries free and caries active with 15 children in each group. Unstimulated saliva was collected by suction method and flow rates were determined. The samples were then analyzed for pH, buffering capacity, total protein, calcium and total antioxidant capacity. The data was statistically analyzed using student t test (unpaired). The results revealed that when all these parameters were compared among the caries free and caries active children, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity were slightly reduced in caries active children, but total protein and total antioxidant capacity of saliva increased significantly in caries active children and the total calcium decreased significantly in caries active children. Within the limitation of this study, we conclude that, the physicochemical properties of saliva play a major role in the development of caries.