Hot deformation behavior of 7A04 aluminum alloy at elevated temperature: constitutive modeling and verification


The hot deformation behaviour of one 7XXX series aluminium alloy, 7A04, has been studied by conducting isothermal hot compression tests with degree of compression up to 55% at the temperature ranging from 350 °C to 480 °C and strain rates ranging from 0.002 s−1 to 20s−1. Based on characteristic of the flow stress obtained from those tests, an extended Voce equation, which constant parameters were modified as Arrhenius-type type equation, was given and used to calculate the flow stresses under the conditions of the hot deformation. The parameters of extended Voce equation were determined by experimental results. The comparison between the experimental and predicted flow stress values at the hot compression parameters range indicated good agreement. The average absolute relative error, root mean square error and the correlation coefficient were found to be 4.9%, 4.8 MPa and 0.997, respectively, which confirmed the extended Voce model had good accuracy. Additional, a finite element simulation model of isothermal hot compression process was used to verify the new Voce equation and the results verified the accuracy of the new equation. The main softening mechanism of the hot deformation was dynamic recovery and was confirmed by optical microstructures.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18


  1. 1.

    Immarigeon J, Zhao L, Wallace W (1995) Lightweight materials for aircraft applications. Mater Charact 35(1):41–67

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Jr EAS, Williams JC (2003) Progress in structural materials for aerospace systems1. Acta Mater 51(19):5775–5799

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Zhang X, Chen Y, Hu J (2018) Recent advances in the development of aerospace materials. Prog Aerosp Sci 97:22–34

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Zhang Y, Jiang S, Zhao Y, Shan D (2013) Isothermal precision forging of complex-shape rotating disk of aluminum alloy based on processing map and digitized technology. Mat Sci Eng A-Struct 580:294–304

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Lin YC, Chen XM (2011) A critical review of experimental results and constitutive descriptions for metals and alloys in hot working. Mater Design 32(4):1733–1759

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    McQueen H J, Ryan N D (2002) Constitutive analysis in hot working. Mat Sci Eng A-Struct322: 43–63

  7. 7.

    Sheppard T, Jackson A (1997) Constitutive equations for use in prediction of flow stress during extrusion of aluminum alloys. Mater Sci Technol 13(3):203–209

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Zener C, Hollomon JH (1944) Effect of strain-rate upon the plastic flow of steel. J Appl Phys 15(1):22–32

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Saravanan L, Senthilvelan T (2016) Constitutive equation and microstructure evaluation of an extruded aluminum alloy. J Mater Res Technol 5(1):521–528

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Jin N, Zhang H, Han Y, Wu W, Chen J (2011) Hot deformation behavior of 7150 aluminum alloy during compression at elevated temperature. Mater Charact 60:530–536

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Shi C, Mao W, Chen XG (2013) Evolution of activation energy during hot deformation of AA7150 aluminum alloy. Mat Sci Eng A-Struct 571:83–91

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Chen L, Zhao G, Yu J, Zhang W (2015) Constitutive analysis of homogenized 7005 aluminum alloy at evaluated temperature for extrusion process. Mater Design 66:129–136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Li J, Li F, Cai J, Wang R, Yuan Z, Xue F (2012) Flow behavior modeling of the 7050 aluminum alloy at elevated temperatures considering the compensation of strain. Mater Design 42:369–377

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Lin YC, Ding Y, Chen M, Deng J (2012) A new phenomenological constitutive model for hot tensile deformation behaviors of a typical Al–cu–mg alloy. Mater Design 52:993–1002

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Haghdadi N, Zarei-Hanzaki A, Khalesian AR, Abedi HR (2013) Artificial neural network modeling to predict the hot deformation behavior of an A356 aluminum alloy. Mater Design 49:386–391

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Rokni MR, Zarei-Hanzaki A, Roostaei AA, Abedi HR (2011) An investigation into the hot deformation characteristics of 7075 aluminum alloy. Mater Design 32(4):2339–2344

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Sun ZC, Zheng LS, Yang H (2014) Softening mechanism and microstructure evolution of as-extruded 7075 aluminum alloy during hot deformation. Mater Charact 90:71–80

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Wang N, Ilinich A, Chen M, Luckey G, D'Amours G (2019) A comparison study on forming limit prediction methods for hot stamping of 7075 aluminum sheet. Int J Mech Sci 151:444–460

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    D'Amours G, Ilinich A (2018) Plasticity and damage modeling of the AA7075 Aluminium alloy for hot stamping. In: 15th international LS-DYNA users conference

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    D'Amours G, Ilinich A (2018) High temperature characterization and material model calibration for hot stamping of AA7075 aluminium sheet. In: International deep-drawing research group conference

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Béland JF, D'Amours G (2011) Warm forming of 7075 aluminium alloy tubes to produce complex and strong parts. SAE 2012 World Congress

  22. 22.

    D'Amours, G. and J.F. Béland (2011) Warm forming simulation of 7075 aluminium alloy tubes using LS-DYNA, 8th European LS-DYNA Users Conference

  23. 23.

    Voce E (1955) A practical strain-hardening function. Metallurgia 51:219–225

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Oudin A, Barnett MR, Hodgson PD (2004) Grain size effect on the warm deformation behaviour of a Ti-IF steel. Mat Sci Eng A-Struct 367(1-2):282–294

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Cerria E, Evangelistaa E, Forcellesea A, McQueen HJ (1995) Comparative hot workability of 7012 and 7075 alloys after different pretreatments. Mat Sci Eng A-Struct 197(2):181–198

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    He D-G, Lin YC, Chen J, Chen D-D, Huang J, Tang Y, Chen M-S (2018) Microstructural evolution and support vector regression model for an aged Ni-based superalloy during two-stage hot forming with stepped strain rates. Mater Design 154:51–62

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Chen X-M, Lin YC, Wen D-X, Zhang J-L, He M (2014) Dynamic recrystallization behavior of a typical nickel-based superalloy during hot deformation. Mater Design 57:568–577

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Lin YC, Wu X-Y, Xiao-Min C, Jian C, Wena D-X, Zhang J-L, Li L-T (2015) EBSD study of a hot deformed nickel-based superalloy. J ALLOY COMPD 640:101–113

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Chen Q, Xia X, Yuan B, Shu D, Zhao Z (2013) Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of 7a09 high strength aluminium alloy processed by backward extrusion at room temperature. Mat Sci Eng A-Struct 588:395–402

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Chen Q, Chen G, Ji X, Han F, Zhao Z, Wan J, Xiao X (2017) Compound forming of 7075 aluminum alloy based on functional integration of plastic deformation and thixoformation. J Mater Process Technol 246:167–175

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lin Jun.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Qiang, Z., Wen, C., Jun, L. et al. Hot deformation behavior of 7A04 aluminum alloy at elevated temperature: constitutive modeling and verification. Int J Mater Form 13, 293–302 (2020).

Download citation


  • Aluminum alloy
  • Hot compression behavior
  • Constitutive models
  • FE simulation