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Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1 Expression Level and Prognostic Significance in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Abstract

Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the expression level of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and its effects on prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia. Methods: The flow cytometry was used to detect PD-L1 expression on leukemic cells of 86 de novo acute myeloid leukemia patients with longitudinal follow-up. Results: Median follow-up was 13 (0–73) months. The mean of expression level was 3.22 ± 0.47 at diagnosis and ranged from 0 to 28%. PD-L1 expression tended to be lower in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (2.47 ± 1.08, p = 0.09) but there was no significant difference between neither diagnostic nor cytogenetic subgroups. There was no difference in PD-L1 levels between the patients who achieved complete remission (3.4 ± 0.61) and those who did not (2.91 ± 0.72, p = 0.94). The patients with low PD-L1 at diagnosis (median 25 mo [95% CI; 0–56.7]) had a longer overall survival compared with high PD-L1 (median 13 mo [95% CI; 5.52–25.17], p = 0.079). PD-L1 expression was lower at relapse (2.04 ± 0.79) compared to initial diagnosis (4.52 ± 0.93, p = 0.049). The patients who had overall survival longer than 1 year showed lower PD-L1 expression at relapse (0.66 ± 0.93) compared with who had not (5.06 ± 4.28, p = 0.052). A negative correlation between CD33 and PD-L1 (r = − 0.303, p = 0.005) was detected. Conclusion: Despite its low expression levels, PD-L1 appears to be a clinically important prognostic factor. The negative correlation determined between PD-L1 and CD33 supports the combination approach of PD-L1 inhibitors and CD33 targeted immunotherapies.

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Correspondence to Ayfer Geduk.

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The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

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This retrospective chart review study involving human participants was in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The Human Investigation Committee of University Kocaeli approved this study. Ethics Committee Approval: GOKAEK-2020/12.30.

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Geduk, A., Atesoglu, E.B., Mehtap, O. et al. Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1 Expression Level and Prognostic Significance in Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 38, 464–472 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12288-021-01473-2

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12288-021-01473-2

Keywords

  • PD-L1
  • B7-H1
  • CD274
  • Immune checkpoint
  • Flow cytometry