Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

In vitro anti-breast cancer studies of LED red light therapy through autophagy

  • Original Article
  • Published:
Breast Cancer Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

LED red light has been reported to have many health benefits. The present study was conducted to characterise anti-proliferation properties of four LED red light wavelengths (615, 630, 660 and 730 nm) against non-triple negative (MCF-7) and triple negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer-origin cell lines. It has been shown by MTT assay that at 24 h post-exposure time point, only LED red light with wavelength 660 nm possessed anti-proliferative effects against both cell lines with 40% reduction of cell viability. The morphology of LED 660 nm irradiated cells was found flatten with enlarged cell size, typical characteristic of cell senescent. Indications of autophagy activities following the irradiation have been provided by acridine orange staining, showing high presence of acidic vesicle organelles (AVOs). In addition, high LC3-II/LC3-I to LC3 ratio has been observed qualitatively in Western blot analysis indicating an increase number of autophagosomes formation in LED 660 nm irradiated cells compared to control cells. Electron dense bodies observed in these cells under TEM micrographs provided additional support to the above observations, leading to the conclusion that LED 660 nm irradiation promoted anti-proliferative activities through autophagy in breast cancer-origin cells. These findings have suggested that LED 660 nm might be developed and be employed as an alternative cancer treatment method in future.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Similar content being viewed by others

Abbreviations

AVO:

Acidic vesicle organelles

LED:

Light emitting diode

TEM:

Transmission electron microscopy

PDT:

Photodynamic therapy

PS:

Photosensitizer

IR:

Infrared

ATP:

Adenosine triphosphate

CCO:

Cytochrome c oxidase

AO:

Acridine orange

ROS:

Reactive oxidative species

References

  1. Alessio N, Gaudio SD, Capasso S, Bernado GD, Cappabianca S, Cipollaro M, Peluso G, Galderisi U. Low dose radiation induced senescence of human mesenchymal stromal cells and impaired the autophagy process. Oncotarget. 2014;6(10):8155–66.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Apel A, Herr I, Schwarz H, Rodemann HP, Mayer A. Blocked autophagy sensitizes resistant carcinoma cells to radiation therapy. Cancer Res. 2008;68(5):1485–94.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Avci P, Gupta A, Sadasivam M, Mtech VD, Pam Z, Pam N, Hamblin MR. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2013;32(1):41–52.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Ferroni C, Rio AD, Martini C, Manoni E, Varchi G. Light-induced therapies for prostate cancer treatment. Front Chem. 2019;7:1–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Gewirtz DA. Autophagy and senescence: a partnership in search of definition. Autophagy. 2013;9(5):808–12.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Karu TI. Multiple roles of cytochrome c oxydase in mammalian cells under action of red and IR-A radiation. IUBMB Life. 2010;62:607–10.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Matsumoto N, Yoshikawa K, Shimada M, Kurita N, Sato H, Iwata T, Higashijima J, Chikakiyo M, Nishi M, Kashihara H, Takasu C, Eto S, Takahashi A, Akutagawa M, Emoto T. Effect of light irradiation by light emitting diode on colon cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 2014;34:4709–16.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Mizushima N, Yoshimori T. How to interpret LC3 immunoblotting. Autophagy. 2007;3(6):542–5.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Mossman T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods. 1983;65:55–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Obayashi T, Funasaka K, Ohno E, Miyahara R, Hirooka Y, Hamaguchi M, Goto H, Senga T. Treatment with near-infrared radiation promotes apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. Oncol Lett. 2015;10:1836–40.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Okon TM, Biard JR (2015) The first practical LED. http://edisontechcenter.org/lightingLED/TheFirstPracticalLED.pdf. Accessed 18 Aug 2019.

  12. Opel DR, Hagstrom E, Pace AK, Sisto K, Hirano-Ali SA, Desai S, Swan J. Light-emitting diode, A brief review and clinical experience. J Clin Aesthet Dermaltol. 2015;8(6):36–44.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Sato T, Murthy VN. Light-emitting diodes for biological microscopy. New York: Cold Spring Harb Protoc, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 2012. p. 1211–22.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Tam SY, Wu VWC, Law HKW. Review: influence of autophagy on the efficacy of radiotherapy. Radiat Oncol. 2017;12:57.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This present research was supported by Rubber Research Institute Malaysia (RRIM) [under research project SEAC S13BTP0460]; Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Penang Malaysia Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) (FRGS/1/2014/SG03/USM/02/1). Thank you for all who have participated and contributed directly and indirectly to this study.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

KLY, SS, BYK, MTO: conceived the idea and designed the experiments; KLY, ICKY: executed the experiments; KLY, SS, MTO: drafted the initial manuscript; KLY, SS: edited the manuscript to its final version. All the authors checked, edited and approved the manuscript prior to its submission.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Subramaniam Sreeramanan.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest in the publication.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yang, K.L., Khoo, B.Y., Ong, M.T. et al. In vitro anti-breast cancer studies of LED red light therapy through autophagy. Breast Cancer 28, 60–66 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12282-020-01128-6

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12282-020-01128-6

Keywords

Navigation