Current Fungal Infection Reports

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 25–34 | Cite as

Invasive Fungal Infection in Primary Immunodeficiencies Other Than Chronic Granulomatous Disease

  • A. GarraffoEmail author
  • B. Pilmis
  • J. Toubiana
  • A. Puel
  • N. Mahlaoui
  • S. Blanche
  • O. Lortholary
  • F. LanternierEmail author
Pediatric Fungal Infections (T Lehrnbecher, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Pediatric Fungal Infections


Purpose of review

We aimed to review invasive fungal infections complicating primary immunodeficiencies (PID).

Recent findings

Several PID predisposing to fungal infections were recently deciphered. CARD9 deficiency selectively predisposes to fungal infections including candidiasis, aspergillosis, deep dermatophytosis, and phaeohyphomycosis, with frequent central nervous system location, especially after Candida infection. Patients with heterozygous STAT1 gain-of-function mutations are mostly predisposed to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis but may also display, even though less frequently, invasive fungal infections. Aspergillosis complicating STAT3 deficiency is also a major concern in patients with lung cavities. Antifungal prophylaxis is recommended in this first group of patients. Previously well-reported PID are known to predispose to fungal infections, such as genetic defects impairing the IL-12/IFN-γ axis can predispose to cryptococcosis, and dimorphic fungal infections.


Patients developing invasive fungal infections including candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, phaeohyphomycosis, pneumocystosis, or disseminated infections caused by dimorphic fungi, without known underlying risk factors, should be explored immunogenetically in order to diagnose primary immunodeficiencies, even in the absence of previous other infectious episodes.


Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) Invasive fungal diseases Pediatric fungal infections Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis Dimorphic fungi CARD9 STAT1 STAT3 Opportunistic infections 



The Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases and Infectious Diseases Unit were supported by the French National Research Agency (ANR) under HGDIFD (ANR-14-CE15-0006).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Olivier Lortholary reports personal fees from Pfizer, MSD, Gilead, and Astellas.

Fanny Lanternier reports personal fees from Basilea, MSD, and Gilead.

Aurelie Garraffo, Benoît Pilmis, Julie Toubiana, A. Puel, Nizar Mahlaoui, and S. Blanche declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Garraffo
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • B. Pilmis
    • 1
    • 3
  • J. Toubiana
    • 4
  • A. Puel
    • 5
  • N. Mahlaoui
    • 6
  • S. Blanche
    • 6
  • O. Lortholary
    • 1
    • 7
  • F. Lanternier
    • 1
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Antimicrobial Stewardship Team, Necker-Enfants Malades HospitalAP-HP and Paris Descartes UniversityParisFrance
  2. 2.Pediatric unit and Antimicrobial Stewardship Team, Robert Debré HospitalAP-HP and Paris Diderot UniversityParisFrance
  3. 3.Antimicrobial Stewardship Team, Microbiology UnitGroupe Hospitalier Paris Saint JosephParisFrance
  4. 4.General Pediatric and Infectious Diseases Unit, Antimicrobial Stewardship Team, Necker Enfants-Malades HospitalAP-HP Paris Descartes UniversityParisFrance
  5. 5.Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM U1163, Necker Medical SchoolImagine Institute and Paris Descartes UniversityParisFrance
  6. 6.Pediatric Hematology-Immunology Unit, Necker Enfants-Malades HospitalAP-HP, and Paris Descartes UniversityParisFrance
  7. 7.Institut Pasteur, Unité de Mycologie Moléculaire, CNRS URA3012National Reference Center of Invasive Mycoses and AntifungalsParisFrance

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