Infection by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) can be prevented by using live attenuated vaccines. VZV vaccine strains are known to evolve rapidly in vivo, however, their genetic and biological effects are not known. In this study, the plaque-purified vaccine strain Suduvax (PPS) was used to understand the genetic changes that occur during the process of propagation in in vitro cell culture. Full genome sequences of three different passages (p4, p30, and p60) of PPS were determined and compared for genetic changes. Mutations were found at 59 positions. The number of genetically polymorphic sites (GPS) and the average of minor allele frequency (MAF) at GPSs were not significantly altered after passaging in cell culture up to p60. The number of variant nucleotide positions (VNPs), wherein GPS was found in at least one passage of PPS, was 149. Overall, MAF changed by less than 5% at 52 VNPs, increased by more than 5% at 42 VNPs, and decreased by more than 5% at 55 VNPs in p60, compared with that seen in p4. More complicated patterns of changes in MAF were observed when genetic polymorphism at 149 VNPs was analyzed among the three passages. However, MAF decreased and mixed genotypes became unequivocally fixed to vaccine type in 23 vaccine-specific positions in higher passages of PPS. Plaque-purified Suduvax appeared to adapt to better replication during in vitro cell culture. Further studies with other vaccine strains and in vivo studies will help to understand the evolution of the VZV vaccine.
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This work was supported in part by funding from GC Pharma.
The authors have no conflicts of interest to report.
Supplemental material for this article may be found at http://www.springerlink.com/content/120956.
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Hwang, H.R., Kang, S.H. & Lee, C.H. Genetic changes in plaque-purified varicella vaccine strain Suduvax during in vitro propagation in cell culture. J Microbiol. 59, 702–707 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12275-021-1062-3
- varicella vaccine
- evolution in vitro
- genetic polymorphism
- genetic fixation