A distinct subset of lactic acid bacteria that are greatly influenced by temperature play an important role during kimchi fermentation. However, microbial population dynamics and temperature control during kimjang kimchi fermentation, which is traditionally fermented underground, are not known. Here we show that Lactobacillus sakei predominates in kimjang kimchi, perhaps due to suitable fermentation (5∼9°C) and storage (−2°C) temperatures. The temperature of this kimchi gradually decreased to 3.2°C during the first 20 days of fermentation (−0.3°C/day) and then was stably maintained around 1.6°C, indicating that this simple approach is very efficient both for fermentation and storage. These findings provide important information towards the development of temperature controlling systems for kimchi fermentation.