Periodic surface functional group density on graphene via laser-induced substrate patterning at Si/SiO2 interface


Controlling the spatial distribution of functional groups on 2D materials on a micrometer scale and below represents a fascinating opportunity to achieve anisotropic (opto)electronic properties of these materials. Periodic patterns of covalent functionalization can lead to periodic potentials in the monolayer; however, creating such superstructures is very challenging. Here, we describe an original approach to the periodic functionalization of graphene induced by substrate patterning using a pulsed laser. Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are produced on silicon wafers with thermally-grown oxide layers. The irradiation conditions for the formation of LIPSS confined at the SiO2/Si interface have been unravelled. LIPSS imprint their periodicity to the reactivity of the monolayer graphene placed on the substrate via modulation of its local doping level. This method is clean, straightforward and scalable with high spatial resolution.

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The work was supported by project No. 18-09055Y and 20-08633X awarded by Czech Science Foundation. The research of I.M., J.S., T.J.-Y.D., and N.M.B. is financed by the European Regional Development Fund and the state budget of the Czech Republic (project BIATRI, No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000445; project HiLASE CoE, No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_006/0000674; programme NPU I, project No. LO1602). The work was further supported by European Regional Development Fund; OP RDE; Project: “Carbon allotropes with rationalized nanointerfaces and nanolinks for environmental and biomedical applications” (No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_026/0008382). The authors also acknowledge the assistance provided by the Research Infrastructures NanoEnviCz (No. LM2015073) supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic and the project Pro-NanoEnviCz (No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001821) supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic and the European Union-European Structural and Investments Funds in the frame of Operational Programme Research Development and Education.

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Drogowska-Horna, K.A., Mirza, I., Rodriguez, A. et al. Periodic surface functional group density on graphene via laser-induced substrate patterning at Si/SiO2 interface. Nano Res. 13, 2332–2339 (2020).

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  • 2D materials
  • graphene functionalization
  • periodic patterns
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • atomic force microscopy (AFM)