Bioengineered magnetoferritin nanozymes for pathological identification of high-risk and ruptured atherosclerotic plaques in humans
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Atherosclerotic plaque rupture results in thrombus formation and vessel occlusion, and is the leading cause of death worldwide. There is a pressing need to identify plaque vulnerability for the treatment of carotid and coronary artery diseases. Nanomaterials with enzyme-like properties have attracted significant interest by providing biological, diagnostic and prognostic information about the diseases. Here we showed that bioengineered magnetoferritin nanoparticles (M-HFn NPs) functionally mimic peroxidase enzyme and can intrinsically recognize plaque-infiltrated active macrophages, which drive atherosclerotic plaque progression and rupture and are significantly associated with the plaque vulnerability. The M-HFn nanozymes catalyze the oxidation of colorimetric substrates to give a color reaction that visualizes the recognized active macrophages for one-step pathological identification of plaque vulnerability. We examined 50 carotid endarterectomy specimens from patients with symptomatic carotid disease and demonstrated that the M-HFn nanozymes could distinguish active macrophage infiltration in ruptured and high-risk plaque tissues, and M-HFn staining displayed a significant correlation with plaque vulnerability (r = 0.89, P < 0.0001).
Keywordsatherosclerosis high-risk plaques ruptured plaques magnetoferritin nanoparticles nanozymes pathological diagnosis
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This work was supported by the following grants: the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFA0205501), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 81722024 and 81571728), the Key Research of Frontier Sciences (No. QYZDY-SSW-SMC013), and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. 2014078).
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