Nano Research

, Volume 10, Issue 12, pp 4398–4414 | Cite as

Multifunctional SnO2/3D graphene hybrid materials for sodium-ion and lithium-ion batteries with excellent rate capability and long cycle life

  • Jung-In Lee
  • Junhua Song
  • Younghwan Cha
  • Shaofang Fu
  • Chengzhou Zhu
  • Xiaolin Li
  • Yuehe LinEmail author
  • Min-Kyu SongEmail author
Research Article


SnO2 is a promising material for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries owing to its high theoretical capacities. Unfortunately, the electrochemical performance of SnO2 is unsatisfactory because of the large volume change that occurs during cycling, low electronic conductivity of inactive oxide matrix, and poor kinetics, which are particularly severe in Na-ion batteries. Herein, ultra-fine SnO2 nanocrystals anchored on a unique three-dimensional (3D) porous reduced graphene oxide (rGO) matrix are described as promising bifunctional electrodes for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries with excellent rate capability and long cycle life. Ultra-fine SnO2 nanocrystals of size ∼6 nm are well-coordinated to the graphene sheets that comprise the 3D macro-porous structure. Notably, superior rate capability was obtained up to 3 C (1/n C is a measure of the rate that allows the cell to be charged/discharged in n h) for both batteries. In situ X-ray diffractometry measurements during lithiation (or sodiation) and delithiation (or desodiation) were combined with various electrochemical techniques to reveal the real-time phase evolution. This critical information was linked with the internal resistance, ion diffusivity (\({D_{L{i^ + }}}\) and \({D_{N{a^ + }}}\)), and the unique structure of the composite electrode materials to explain their excellent electrochemical performance. The improved capacity and superior rate capabilities demonstrated in this work can be ascribed to the enhanced transport kinetics of both electrons and ions within the electrode structure because of the well-interconnected, 3D macro-porous rGO matrix. The porous rGO matrix appears to play a more important role in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), where the larger mass/radius of Na-ions are marked concerns.


sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) SnO2 three-dimensional (3D) graphene hybrid materials 


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This work was supported by the start-up funds of Prof. Song and Prof. Lin at Washington State University.

Supplementary material

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Multifunctional SnO2/3D graphene hybrid materials for sodium-ion and lithium-ion batteries with excellent rate capability and long cycle life


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Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jung-In Lee
    • 1
  • Junhua Song
    • 1
  • Younghwan Cha
    • 1
  • Shaofang Fu
    • 1
  • Chengzhou Zhu
    • 1
  • Xiaolin Li
    • 2
  • Yuehe Lin
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Min-Kyu Song
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Mechanical and Materials EngineeringWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  2. 2.Energy & Environment DirectoratePacific Northwest National LaboratoryRichlandUSA
  3. 3.Pacific Northwest National LaboratoryRichlandUSA

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