Nano Research

, Volume 10, Issue 10, pp 3333–3345 | Cite as

Biofunctionalized upconverting CaF2:Yb,Tm nanoparticles for Candida albicans detection and imaging

  • Małgorzata Misiak
  • Michał Skowicki
  • Tomasz Lipiński
  • Agnieszka Kowalczyk
  • Katarzyna Prorok
  • Sebastian Arabasz
  • Artur Bednarkiewicz
Research Article


Versatile optimization of the synthesis method and composition of Yb3+ and Tm3+ co-doped CaF2 nanoparticles as well as a novel biofunctionalization method were developed and evaluated. Through multistep synthesis, the luminescence intensity of the Tm3+ activator was enhanced by more than 10-fold compared to standard one-step synthesis. The proposed methods were used to homogenously distribute the doping ions within the nanoparticle’s volume and thus reduce luminescence quenching. Optimization of dopant ions concentration led to the selection of the most efficient visible and near-infrared up-converting nanoparticles, which were CaF2 doped with 10% Yb3+ 0.05% Tm3+ and 20% Yb3+ 0.5% Tm3+, respectively. To illustrate the suitability of the synthesized nanoparticles as bio-labels, a dedicated biofunctionalization method was used, and the nanoparticles were applied for labeling and imaging of Candida albicans cells. This method shows great promise because of extremely low background and high specificity because of the presence of the attached molecules.


up-conversion luminescence nanomaterials fluoride nanoparticles bioimaging 


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The research was financed by the Polish National Science Centre grant funded according to the decision no. DEC-2013/11/N/ST5/02716. T. L. acknowledges Polish National Science Centre “OPUS 5” (No. 2013/09/B/NZ6/03526).

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Biofunctionalized upconverting CaF2:Yb,Tm nanoparticles for Candida albicans detection and imaging


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Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Małgorzata Misiak
    • 1
  • Michał Skowicki
    • 1
  • Tomasz Lipiński
    • 2
    • 1
  • Agnieszka Kowalczyk
    • 1
  • Katarzyna Prorok
    • 1
  • Sebastian Arabasz
    • 3
    • 1
  • Artur Bednarkiewicz
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Wrocław Research Centre EIT+WrocławPoland
  2. 2.Insitute of Immunology and Experimental TherapyPolish Academy of SciencesWrocławPoland
  3. 3.Centre of Polymer and Carbon MaterialsPolish Academy of SciencesZabrzePoland
  4. 4.Institute of Low Temperature and Structure ResearchPolish Academy of SciencesWrocławPoland

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