Nano Research

, Volume 10, Issue 9, pp 3164–3177 | Cite as

Proline-derived in situ synthesis of nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanosheets with encaged Fe2O3@Fe3C nanoparticles for lithium-ion battery anodes

Research Article


The homogeneous incorporation of heteroatoms into two-dimensional C nanostructures, which leads to an increased chemical reactivity and electrical conductivity as well as enhanced synergistic catalysis as a conductive matrix to disperse and encapsulate active nanocatalysts, is highly attractive and quite challenging. In this study, by using the natural and cheap hydrotropic amino acid proline—which has remarkably high solubility in water and a desirable N content of ~12.2 wt.%—as a C precursor pyrolyzed in the presence of a cubic KCl template, we developed a facile protocol for the large-scale production of N-doped C nanosheets with a hierarchically porous structure in a homogeneous dispersion. With concomitantly encapsulated and evenly spread Fe2O3 nanoparticles surrounded by two protective ultrathin layers of inner Fe3C and outer onion-like C, the resulting N-doped graphitic C nanosheet hybrids (Fe2O3@Fe3C-NGCNs) exhibited a very high Li-storage capacity and excellent rate capability with a reliable and prolonged cycle life. A reversible capacity as high as 857 mAh•g–1 at a current density of 100 mA•g–1 was observed even after 100 cycles. The capacity retention at a current density 10 times higher—1,000 mA•g–1—reached 680 mAh•g–1, which is 79% of that at 100 mA•g–1, indicating that the hybrids are promising as anodes for advanced Li-ion batteries. The results highlight the importance of the heteroatomic dopant modification of the NGCNs host with tailored electronic and crystalline structures for competitive Li-storage features.


proline N-doped C nanosheet porous encaged Fe2O3@Fe3Li-ion battery 


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The authors thank the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21576139, 21503111, and 21376122), the Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development (PAPD) of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and National and Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Biomedical Functional Materials.

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Proline-derived in situ synthesis of nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanosheets with encaged Fe2O3@Fe3C nanoparticles for lithium-ion battery anodes


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Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jingfei Zhang
    • 1
  • Lijuan Qi
    • 1
  • Xiaoshu Zhu
    • 1
  • Xiaohong Yan
    • 1
  • Yufeng Jia
    • 1
  • Lin Xu
    • 1
  • Dongmei Sun
    • 1
  • Yawen Tang
    • 1
  1. 1.Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Power Batteries, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomedical Functional Materials, Analysis and Testing Center, School of Chemistry and Materials ScienceNanjing Normal UniversityNanjingChina

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