Nano Research

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 1268–1281 | Cite as

Understanding of the capacity contribution of carbon in phosphorus-carbon composites for high-performance anodes in lithium ion batteries

  • Jiantie Xu
  • In-Yup Jeon
  • Jianmin Ma
  • Yuhai Dou
  • Seok-Jin Kim
  • Jeong-Min Seo
  • Huakun Liu
  • Shixue DouEmail author
  • Jong-Beom BaekEmail author
  • Liming DaiEmail author
Research Article


Phosphorus has recently received extensive attention as a promising anode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high theoretical capacity of 2,596 mAh·g–1. To develop high-performance phosphorus anodes for LIBs, carbon materials have been hybridized with phosphorus (P-C) to improve dispersion and conductivity. However, the specific capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability of P-C anodes are still less than satisfactory for practical applications. Furthermore, the exact effects of the carbon support on the electrochemical performance of the P-C anodes are not fully understood. Herein, a series of xP-yC anode materials for LIBs were prepared by a simple and efficient ball-milling method. 6P-4C and 3P-7C were found to be optimum mass ratios of x/y, and delivered initial discharge capacities of 1,803.5 and 1,585.3·mAh·g–1, respectively, at 0.1 C in the voltage range 0.02–2 V, with an initial capacity retention of 68.3% over 200 cycles (more than 4 months cycling life) and 40.8% over 450 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance of the 6P-4C and 3P-7C samples was attributed to a synergistic effect from both the adsorbed P and carbon.


phosphorus carbon synergistic effect anode lithium ion batteries 


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The authors are grateful for financial support from the Gobal Challenge Program grant (University of wollongong), Australia Auto CRC 2020, Creative Research Initiative (NRF), and National Science Foundation (No. NSF-CMMI-1400274). The autors also want to thank Ms. Donghua Han, and Mr. Boyang Ruan for their great help.

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Understanding of the capacity contribution of carbon in phosphorus-carbon composites for high-performance anodes in lithium ion batteries


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Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Superconducting and Electronic MaterialsUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia
  2. 2.School of Energy and Chemical Engineering/Low-Dimensional Carbon Materials CenterUlsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST)UlsanRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Macromolecular Science and EngineeringCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

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