Nano Research

, Volume 9, Issue 10, pp 2875–2888 | Cite as

Hierarchically porous carbon foams for electric double layer capacitors

  • Feng Zhang
  • Tianyu Liu
  • Guihua Hou
  • Tianyi Kou
  • Lu Yue
  • Rongfeng Guan
  • Yat Li
Research Article

Abstract

The growing demand for portable electronic devices means that lightweight power sources are increasingly sought after. Electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) are promising candidates for use in lightweight power sources due to their high power densities and outstanding charge/discharge cycling stabilities. Three-dimensional (3D) self-supporting carbon-based materials have been extensively studied for use in lightweight EDLCs. Yet, a major challenge for 3D carbon electrodes is the limited ion diffusion rate in their internal spaces. To address this limitation, hierarchically porous 3D structures that provide additional channels for internal ion diffusion have been proposed. Herein, we report a new chemical method for the synthesis of an ultralight (9.92 mg/cm3) 3D porous carbon foam (PCF) involving carbonization of a glutaraldehydecross-linked chitosan aerogel in the presence of potassium carbonate. Electron microscopy images reveal that the carbon foam is an interconnected network of carbon sheets containing uniformly dispersed macropores. In addition, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller measurements confirm the hierarchically porous structure. Electrochemical data show that the PCF electrode can achieve an outstanding gravimetric capacitance of 246.5 F/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g, and a remarkable capacity retention of 67.5% was observed when the current density was increased from 0.5 to 100 A/g. A quasi-solid-state symmetric supercapacitor was fabricated via assembly of two pieces of the new PCF and was found to deliver an ultra-high power density of 25 kW/kg at an energy density of 2.8 Wh/kg. This study demonstrates the synthesis of an ultralight and hierarchically porous carbon foam with high capacitive performance.

Keywords

hierarchically porous structure glutaraldehyde-crosslinked chitosan light weight carbon foam electrical double layer capacitors 

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Hierarchically porous carbon foams for electric double layer capacitors

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Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Feng Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tianyu Liu
    • 2
  • Guihua Hou
    • 1
  • Tianyi Kou
    • 2
  • Lu Yue
    • 1
  • Rongfeng Guan
    • 1
  • Yat Li
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Advanced Technology in Environmental Protection of Jiangsu ProvinceYancheng Institute of TechnologyYanchengChina
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryUniversity of CaliforniaSanta CruzUSA

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