Nano Research

, Volume 9, Issue 6, pp 1543–1560 | Cite as

Optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides

  • He Tian
  • Matthew L. Chin
  • Sina Najmaei
  • Qiushi Guo
  • Fengnian Xia
  • Han WangEmail author
  • Madan DubeyEmail author
Review Article


In the past few years, two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) materials have attracted increasing attention of the research community, owing to their unique electronic and optical properties, ranging from the valley–spin coupling to the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition when scaling the materials from multi-layer to monolayer. These properties are appealing for the development of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices with important applications in the broad fields of communication, computation, and healthcare. One of the key features of the TMDC family is the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition that occurs when the material thickness decreases from multilayer to monolayer, which is favorable for many photonic applications. TMDCs have also demonstrated unprecedented flexibility and versatility for constructing a wide range of heterostructures with atomic-level control over their layer thickness that is also free of lattice mismatch issues. As a result, layered TMDCs in combination with other 2D materials have the potential for realizing novel high-performance optoelectronic devices over a broad operating spectral range. In this article, we review the recent progress in the synthesis of 2D TMDCs and optoelectronic devices research. We also discuss the challenges facing the scalable applications of the family of 2D materials and provide our perspective on the opportunities offered by these materials for future generations of nanophotonics technology.


transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) optoelectronic device molybdenum disulfide (MoS2photodetector light-emitting diode (LED) 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Geim, A. K.; Novoselov, K. S. The rise of graphene. Nat. Mater. 2007, 6, 183–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Geim, A. K. Graphene: Status and prospects. Science 2009, 324, 1530–1534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Novoselov, K. S.; Fal’ko, V. I.; Colombo, L.; Gellert, P. R.; Schwab, M. G.; Kim, K. A roadmap for graphene. Nature 2012, 490, 192–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Zhang, Y. B.; Tan, Y.-W.; Stormer, H. L.; Kim, P. Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene. Nature 2005, 438, 201–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    de Abajo, F. J. G. Graphene nanophotonics. Science 2013, 339, 917–918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Freitag, M. Graphene: Nanoelectronics goes flat out. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2008, 3, 455–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Meric, I.; Han, M. Y.; Young, A. F.; Ozyilmaz, B.; Kim, P.; Shepard, K. L. Current saturation in zero-bandgap, top-gated graphene field-effect transistors. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2008, 3, 654–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Yan, J.; Zhang, Y. B.; Kim, P.; Pinczuk, A. Electric field effect tuning of electron–phonon coupling in graphene. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2007, 98, 166802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Freitag, M.; Low, T.; Xia, F. N.; Avouris, P. Photoconductivity of biased graphene. Nat. Photon. 2013, 7, 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Ju, L.; Geng, B. S.; Horng, J.; Girit, C.; Martin, M.; Hao, Z.; Bechtel, H. A.; Liang, X. G.; Zettl, A.; Shen, Y. R. et al. Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2011, 6, 630–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Grigorenko, A. N.; Polini, M.; Novoselov, K. S. Graphene plasmonics. Nat. Photon. 2012, 6, 749–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Mueller, T.; Xia, F. N.; Avouris, P. Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications. Nat. Photon. 2010, 4, 297–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Liu, M.; Yin, X. B.; Ulin-Avila, E.; Geng, B. S.; Zentgraf, T.; Ju, L.; Wang, F.; Zhang, X. A graphene-based broadband optical modulator. Nature 2011, 474, 64–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Mueller, T.; Xia, F. N.; Freitag, M.; Tsang, J.; Avouris, P. Role of contacts in graphene transistors: A scanning photocurrent study. Phys. Rev. B 2009, 79, 245430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Wang, Q. H.; Kalantar-Zadeh, K.; Kis, A.; Coleman, J. N.; Strano, M. S. Electronics and optoelectronics of twodimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2012, 7, 699–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Peng, B.; Ang, P. K.; Loh, K. P. Two-dimensional dichalcogenides for light-harvesting applications. Nano Today 2015, 10, 128–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Liu, E. F.; Fu, Y. J.; Wang, Y. J.; Feng, Y. Q.; Liu, H. M.; Wan, X. G.; Zhou, W.; Wang, B. G.; Shao, L. B.; Ho, C.-H. et al. Integrated digital inverters based on two-dimensional anisotropic ReS2 field-effect transistors. Nat. Commun. 2015, 6, 6991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Zhao, H.; Guo, Q. S.; Xia, F. N.; Wang, H. Two-dimensional materials for nanophotonics application. Nanophotonics 2015, 4, DOI: 10.1515/nanoph-2014-0022.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Lee, H. S.; Min, S.-W.; Chang, Y.-G.; Park, M. K.; Nam, T.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Ryu, S.; Im, S. MoS2 nanosheet phototransistors with thickness-modulated optical energy gap. Nano Lett. 2012, 12, 3695–3700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Tonndorf, P.; Schmidt, R.; Böttger, P.; Zhang, X.; Börner, J.; Liebig, A.; Albrecht, M.; Kloc, C.; Gordan, O.; Zahn, D. R. et al. Photoluminescence emission and Raman response of monolayer MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2. Opt. Express 2013, 21, 4908–4916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Jo, S.; Ubrig, N.; Berger, H.; Kuzmenko, A. B.; Morpurgo, A. F. Mono- and bilayer WS2 light-emitting transistors. Nano Lett. 2014, 14, 2019–2025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Zhao, H.; Wu, J. B.; Zhong, H. X.; Guo, Q. S.; Wang, X. M.; Xia, F. N.; Yang, L.; Tan, P.-H.; Wang, H. Interlayer interactions in anisotropic atomically thin rhenium diselenide. Nano Res. 2015, 8, 3651–3661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Duerloo, K.-A. N.; Li, Y.; Reed, E. J. Structural phase transitions in two-dimensional Mo- and W-dichalcogenide monolayers. Nat. Commun. 2014, 5, 4214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Li, Y.; Duerloo, K.-A. N.; Wauson, K.; Reed, E. J. Structural semiconductor-to-semimetal phase transition in two-dimensional materials induced by electrostatic gating. Nat. Commun. 2016, 7, 10671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Cao, T.; Wang, G.; Han, W. P.; Ye, H. Q.; Zhu, C. R.; Shi, J. R.; Niu, Q.; Tan, P. S.; Wang, E. G.; Liu, B. L. et al. Valley-selective circular dichroism of monolayer molybdenum disulphide. Nat. Commun. 2012, 3, 887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Chen, Y. F.; Xi, J. Y.; Dumcenco, D. O.; Liu, Z.; Suenaga, K.; Wang, D.; Shuai, Z. G.; Huang, Y.-S.; Xie, L. M. Tunable band gap photoluminescence from atomically thin transitionmetal dichalcogenide alloys. ACS Nano 2013, 7, 4610–4616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Chen, Y. F.; Dumcenco, D. O.; Zhu, Y. M.; Zhang, X.; Mao, N. N.; Feng, Q. L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, J.; Tan, P.-H.; Huang, Y.-S. et al. Composition-dependent Raman modes of Mo1-xWxS2 monolayer alloys. Nanoscale 2014, 6, 2833–2839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Gong, Y. J.; Liu, Z.; Lupini, A. R.; Shi, G.; Lin, J. H.; Najmaei, S.; Lin, Z.; Elías, A. L.; Berkdemir, A.; You, G. et al. Band gap engineering and layer-by-layer mapping of selenium-doped molybdenum disulfide. Nano Lett. 2014, 14, 442–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Mann, J.; Ma, Q.; Odenthal, P. M.; Isarraraz, M.; Le, D.; Preciado, E.; Barroso, D.; Yamaguchi, K.; von Son Palacio, G.; Nguyen, A. et al. 2-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides with tunable direct band gaps: MoS2(1-x) Se2x monolayers. Adv. Mater. 2014, 26, 1399–1404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Liu, B. L.; Köpf, M.; Abbas, A. A.; Wang, X. M.; Guo, Q. S.; Jia, Y. C.; Xia, F. N.; Weihrich, R.; Bachhuber, F.; Pielnhofer, F. et al. Black arsenic-phosphorus: Layered anisotropic infrared semiconductors with highly tunable compositions and properties. Adv. Mater. 2015, 27, 4423–4429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Novoselov, K. S.; Geim, A. K.; Morozov, S. V.; Jiang, D.; Zhang, Y.; Dubonos, S. V.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Firsov, A. A. Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 2004, 306, 666–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Novoselov, K. S.; Jiang, D.; Schedin, F.; Booth, T. J.; Khotkevich, V. V.; Morozov, S. V.; Geim, A. K. Twodimensional atomic crystals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2005, 102, 10451–10453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Radisavljevic, B.; Radenovic, A.; Brivio, J.; Giacometti, V.; Kis, A. Single-layer MoS2 transistors. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2011, 6, 147–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    Fang, H.; Chuang, S.; Chang, T. C.; Takei, K.; Takahashi, T.; Javey, A. High-performance single layered WSe2 p-FETs with chemically doped contacts. Nano Lett. 2012, 12, 3788–3792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Dean, C. R.; Young, A. F.; Meric, I.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Sorgenfrei, S.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Kim, P.; Shepard, K. L. et al. Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2010, 5, 722–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Agraït, N.; Rubio-Bollinger, G. Optical identification of atomically thin dichalcogenide crystals. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2010, 96, 213116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Late, D. J.; Liu, B.; Matte, H. S. S.; Rao, C. N. R.; Dravid, V. P. Rapid characterization of ultrathin layers of chalcogenides on SiO2/Si substrates. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2012, 22, 1894–1905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Benameur, M. M.; Radisavljevic, B.; Héron, J.; Sahoo, S.; Berger, H.; Kis, A. Visibility of dichalcogenide nanolayers. Nanotechnology 2011, 22, 125706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Barkelid, M.; Goossens, A. M.; Calado, V. E.; van der Zant, H. S. J.; Steele, G. A. Laserthinning of MoS2: On demand generation of a single-layer semiconductor. Nano Lett. 2012, 12, 3187–3192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    Britnell, L.; Gorbachev, R. V.; Jalil, R.; Belle, B. D.; Schedin, F.; Mishchenko, A.; Georgiou, T.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Eaves, L.; Morozov, S. V. et al. Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures. Science 2012, 335, 947–950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Buscema, M.; Molenaar, R.; Singh, V.; Janssen, L.; van der Zant, H. S. J.; Steele, G. A. Deterministic transfer of two-dimensional materials by alldry viscoelastic stamping. 2D Mater. 2014, 1, 011002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    Geim, A. K.; Grigorieva, I. V. Van der Waals heterostructures. Nature 2013, 499, 419–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    Roy, K.; Padmanabhan, M.; Goswami, S.; Sai, T. P.; Ramalingam, G.; Raghavan, S.; Ghosh, A. Graphene–MoS2 hybrid structures for multifunctional photoresponsive memory devices. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2013, 8, 826–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. [44]
    Tian, H.; Tan, Z.; Wu, C.; Wang, X. M.; Mohammad, M. A.; Xie, D.; Yang, Y.; Wang, J.; Li, L.-J.; Xu, J. et al. Novel field-effect schottky barrier transistors based on graphene–MoS2 heterojunctions. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    Britnell, L.; Ribeiro, R. M.; Eckmann, A.; Jalil, R.; Belle, B. D.; Mishchenko, A.; Kim, Y.-J.; Gorbachev, R. V.; Georgiou, T.; Morozov, S. V. et al. Strong light–matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films. Science 2013, 340, 1311–1314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    Lee, C.-H.; Lee, G.-H.; van der Zande, A. M.; Chen, W. C.; Li, Y. L.; Han, M. Y.; Cui, X.; Arefe, G.; Nuckolls, C.; Heinz, T. F. et al. Atomically thin p–n junctions with van der Waals heterointerfaces. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2014, 9, 676–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. [47]
    Nicolosi, V.; Chhowalla, M.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Strano, M. S.; Coleman, J. N. Liquid exfoliation of layered materials. Science 2013, 340, 1226419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    Hernandez, Y.; Nicolosi, V.; Lotya, M.; Blighe, F. M.; Sun, Z. Y.; De, S.; McGovern, I. T.; Holland, B.; Byrne, M.; Gun'Ko, Y. K. et al. High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2008, 3, 563–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    Coleman, J. N.; Lotya, M.; O’Neill, A.; Bergin, S. D.; King, P. J.; Khan, U.; Young, K.; Gaucher, A.; De, S.; Smith, R. J. et al. Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials. Science 2011, 331, 568–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. [50]
    Paton, K. R.; Varrla, E.; Backes, C.; Smith, R. J.; Khan, U.; O’Neill, A.; Boland, C.; Lotya, M.; Istrate, O. M.; King, P. et al. Scalable production of large quantities of defect-free few-layer graphene by shear exfoliation in liquids. Nat. Mater. 2014, 13, 624–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    Sahoo, R. R.; Biswas, S. K. Microtribology and frictioninduced material transfer in layered MoS2 nanoparticles sprayed on a steel surface. Tribol. Lett. 2010, 37, 313–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    Sun, X. M.; Luo, D. C.; Liu, J. F.; Evans, D. G. Monodisperse chemically modified graphene obtained by density gradient ultracentrifugal rate separation. ACS Nano 2010, 4, 3381–3389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. [53]
    Kang, J.; Seo, J.-W. T.; Alducin, D.; Ponce, A.; Yacaman, M. J.; Hersam, M. C. Thickness sorting of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides via copolymer-assisted density gradient ultracentrifugation. Nat. Commun. 2014, 5, 5478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. [54]
    Backes, C.; Smith, R. J.; McEvoy, N.; Berner, N. C.; McCloskey, D.; Nerl, H. C.; O’Neill, A.; King, P. J.; Higgins, T.; Hanlon, D. et al. Edge and confinement effects allow in situ measurement of size and thickness of liquid-exfoliated nanosheets. Nat. Commun. 2014, 5, 4576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. [55]
    Eda, G.; Yamaguchi, H.; Voiry, D.; Fujita, T.; Chen, M. W.; Chhowalla, M. Photoluminescence from chemically exfoliated MoS2. Nano Lett. 2011, 11, 5111–5116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. [56]
    Lee, Y. H.; Zhang, X. Q.; Zhang, W. J.; Chang, M. T.; Lin, C. T.; Chang, K. D.; Yu, Y. C.; Wang, J. T. W.; Chang, C. S.; Li, L. J. et al. Synthesis of large-area MoS2 atomic layers with chemical vapor deposition. Adv. Mater. 2012, 24, 2320–2325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    Zhang, J.; Yu, H.; Chen, W.; Tian, X. Z.; Liu, D. H.; Cheng, M.; Xie, G. B.; Yang, W.; Yang, R.; Bai, X. D. et al. Scalable growth of high-quality polycrystalline MoS2 monolayers on SiO2 with tunable grain sizes. ACS Nano 2014, 8, 6024–6030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    Lee, Y.-H.; Yu, L. L.; Wang, H.; Fang, W. J.; Ling, X.; Shi, Y. M.; Lin, C.-T.; Huang, J.-K.; Chang, M.-T.; Chang, C.-S. et al. Synthesis and transfer of single-layer transition metal disulfides on diverse surfaces. Nano Lett. 2013, 13, 1852–1857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. [59]
    Lin, Y.-C.; Zhang, W. J.; Huang, J.-K.; Liu, K.-K.; Lee, Y.-H.; Liang, C.-T.; Chu, C.-W.; Li, L.-J. Wafer-scale MoS2 thin layers prepared by MoO3 sulfurization. Nanoscale 2012, 4, 6637–6641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. [60]
    Wang, H.; Yu, L. L.; Lee, Y.-H.; Shi, Y. M.; Hsu, A.; Chin, M. L.; Li, L.-J.; Dubey, M.; Kong, J.; Palacios, T. Integrated circuits based on bilayer MoS2 transistors. Nano Lett. 2012, 12, 4674–4680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. [61]
    Wang, H.; Yu, L.; Lee, Y.-H.; Fang, W.; Hsu, A.; Herring, P.; Chin, M.; Dubey, M.; Li, L.-J.; Kong, J. et al. Large-scale 2D electronics based on single-layer MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition. In Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Electron Device Meeting (IEDM), San Francisco, USA, 2012, pp 4.6.1–4.6.4.Google Scholar
  62. [62]
    Liu, K.-K.; Zhang, W. J.; Lee, Y.-H.; Lin, Y.-C.; Chang, M.-T.; Su, C.-Y.; Chang, C.-S.; Li, H.; Shi, Y. M.; Zhang, H. et al. Growth of large-area and highly crystalline MoS2 thin layers on insulating substrates. Nano Lett. 2012, 12, 1538–1544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. [63]
    van der Zande, A. M.; Huang, P. Y.; Chenet, D. A.; Berkelbach, T. C.; You, Y.; Lee, G.-H.; Heinz, T. F.; Reichman, D. R.; Muller, D. A.; Hone, J. C. Grains and grain boundaries in highly crystalline monolayer molybdenum disulphide. Nat. Mater. 2013, 12, 554–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. [64]
    Najmaei, S.; Liu, Z.; Zhou, W.; Zou, X. L.; Shi, G.; Lei, S. D.; Yakobson, B. I.; Idrobo, J.-C.; Ajayan, P. M.; Lou, J. Vapour phase growth and grain boundary structure of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers. Nat. Mater. 2013, 12, 754–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. [65]
    Kang, K.; Xie, S.; Huang, L. J.; Han, Y. M.; Huang, P. Y.; Mak, K. F.; Kim, C.-J.; Muller, D.; Park, J. High-mobility three-atom-thick semiconducting films with wafer-scale homogeneity. Nature 2015, 520, 656–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. [66]
    Marks, T. J.; Hersam, M. C. Materials science: Semiconductors grown large and thin. Nature 2015, 520, 631–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. [67]
    Huang, C. M.; Wu, S. F.; Sanchez, A. M.; Peters, J. J. P.; Beanland, R.; Ross, J. S.; Rivera, P.; Yao, W.; Cobden, D. H.; Xu, X. D. Lateral heterojunctions within monolayer MoSe2–WSe2 semiconductors. Nat. Mater. 2014, 13, 1096–1101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. [68]
    Yu, Y. F.; Hu, S.; Su, L. Q.; Huang, L. J.; Liu, Y.; Jin, Z. H.; Purezky, A. A.; Geohegan, D. B.; Kim, K. W.; Zhang, Y. et al. Equally efficient interlayer exciton relaxation and improved absorption in epitaxial and nonepitaxial MoS2/WS2 heterostructures. Nano Lett. 2015, 15, 486–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. [69]
    Gong, Y. J.; Lin, J. H.; Wang, X. L.; Shi, G.; Lei, S. D.; Lin, Z.; Zou, X. L.; Ye, G. L.; Vajtai, R.; Yakobson, B. I. et al. Vertical and in-plane heterostructures from WS2/MoS2 monolayers. Nat. Mater. 2014, 13, 1135–1142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. [70]
    Chen, K.; Wan, X.; Xie, W. G.; Wen, J. X.; Kang, Z. W.; Zeng, X. L.; Chen, H. J.; Xu, J. B. Lateral built-in potential of monolayer MoS2–WS2 in-plane heterostructures by a shortcut growth strategy. Adv. Mater. 2015, 27, 6431–6437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. [71]
    Duan, X. D.; Wang, C.; Shaw, J. C.; Cheng, R.; Chen, Y.; Li, H. L.; Wu, X. P.; Tang, Y.; Zhang, Q. L.; Pan, A. L. et al. Lateral epitaxial growth of two-dimensional layered semiconductor heterojunctions. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2014, 9, 1024–1030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. [72]
    Li, M.-Y.; Shi, Y.; Cheng, C.-C.; Lu, L.-S.; Lin, Y.-C.; Tang, H.-L.; Tsai, M.-L.; Chu, C.-W.; Wei, K.-H.; He, J.-H. et al. Epitaxial growth of a monolayer WSe2–MoS2 lateral p–n junction with an atomically sharp interface. Science 2015, 349, 524–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. [73]
    Gong, Y. J.; Lei, S. D.; Ye, G. L.; Li, B.; He, Y. M.; Keyshar, K.; Zhang, X.; Wang, Q. Z.; Lou, J.; Liu, Z. et al. Two-step growth of two-dimensional WSe2/MoSe2 heterostructures. Nano Lett. 2015, 15, 6135–6141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. [74]
    Chen, K.; Wan, X.; Wen, J. X.; Xie, W. G.; Kang, Z. W.; Zeng, X. L.; Chen, H. J.; Xu, J.-B. Electronic properties of MoS2–WS2 heterostructures synthesized with two-step lateral epitaxial strategy. ACS Nano 2015, 9, 9868–9876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. [75]
    Zhang, Q.; Xiao, X.; Zhao, R. Q.; Lv, D. H.; Xu, G. C.; Lu, Z. X.; Sun, L. F.; Lin, S. Z.; Gao, X.; Zhou, J. et al. Two-dimensional layered heterostructures synthesized from core-shell nanowires. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 8957–8960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. [76]
    Yin, Z. Y.; Li, H.; Li, H.; Jiang, L.; Shi, Y. M.; Sun, Y. H.; Lu, G.; Zhang, Q.; Chen, X. D.; Zhang, H. Single-layer MoS2 phototransistors. ACS Nano 2012, 6, 74–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. [77]
    Choi, W.; Cho, M. Y.; Konar, A.; Lee, J. H.; Cha, G. B.; Hong, S. C.; Kim, S.; Kim, J.; Jena, D.; Joo, J. et al. Highdetectivity multilayer MoS2 phototransistors with spectral response from ultraviolet to infrared. Adv. Mater. 2012, 24, 5832–5836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. [78]
    Lopez-Sanchez, O.; Lembke, D.; Kayci, M.; Radenovic, A.; Kis, A. Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2013, 8, 497–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. [79]
    Furchi, M. M.; Polyushkin, D. K.; Pospischil, A.; Mueller, T. Mechanisms of photoconductivity in atomically thin MoS2. Nano Lett. 2014, 14, 6165–6170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. [80]
    Huo, N. J.; Yang, S. X.; Wei, Z. M.; Li, S.-S.; Xia, J.-B.; Li, J. B. Photoresponsive and gas sensing field-effect transistors based on multilayer WS2 nanoflakes. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5209.Google Scholar
  81. [81]
    Yang, S. X.; Tongay, S.; Yue, Q.; Li, Y. T.; Li, B.; Lu, F. Y. High-performance few-layer Mo-doped ReSe2 nanosheet photodetectors. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5442.Google Scholar
  82. [82]
    Yu, W. J.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, H. L.; Yin, A. X.; Li, Z.; Huang, Y.; Duan, X. F. Highly efficient gate-tunable photocurrent generation in vertical heterostructures of layered materials. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2013, 8, 952–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. [83]
    Zhang, W. J.; Chuu, C.-P.; Huang, J.-K.; Chen, C.-H.; Tsai, M.-L.; Chang, Y.-H.; Liang, C.-T.; Chen, Y.-Z.; Chueh, Y.-L.; He, J.-H. et al. Ultrahigh-gain photodetectors based on atomically thin graphene–MoS2 heterostructures. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 3826.Google Scholar
  84. [84]
    Jariwala, D.; Sangwan, V. K.; Wu, C.-C.; Prabhumirashi, P. L.; Geier, M. L.; Marks, T. J.; Lauhon, L. J.; Hersam, M. C. Gate-tunable carbon nanotube–MoS2 heterojunction p–n diode. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2013, 110, 18076–18080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. [85]
    Lin, J. D.; Li, H.; Zhang, H.; Chen, W. Plasmonic enhancement of photocurrent in MoS2 field-effect-transistor. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2013, 102, 203109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. [86]
    Sobhani, A.; Lauchner, A.; Najmaei, S.; Ayala-Orozco, C.; Wen, F. F.; Lou, J.; Halas, N. J. Enhancing the photocurrent and photoluminescence of single crystal monolayer MoS2 with resonant plasmonic nanoshells. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2014, 104, 031112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. [87]
    Kang, Y. M.; Najmaei, S.; Liu, Z.; Bao, Y. J.; Wang, Y. M.; Zhu, X.; Halas, N. J.; Nordlander, P.; Ajayan, P. M.; Lou, J. et al. Plasmonic hot electron induced structural phase transition in a MoS2 monolayer. Adv. Mater. 2014, 26, 6467–6471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. [88]
    Akselrod, G. M.; Ming, T.; Argyropoulos, C.; Hoang, T. B.; Lin, Y. X.; Ling, X.; Smith, D. R.; Kong, J.; Mikkelsen, M. H. Leveraging nanocavity harmonics for control of optical processes in 2D semiconductors. Nano Lett. 2015, 15, 3578–3584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. [89]
    Lee, J.; Hernandez, P.; Lee, J.; Govorov, A. O.; Kotov, N. A. Exciton–plasmon interactions in molecular spring assemblies of nanowires and wavelength-based protein detection. Nat. Mater. 2007, 6, 291–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. [90]
    Najmaei, S.; Mlayah, A.; Arbouet, A.; Girard, C.; Léotin, J.; Lou, J. Plasmonic pumping of excitonic photoluminescence in hybrid MoS2–Au nanostructures. ACS Nano 2014, 8, 12682–12689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. [91]
    Sundaram, R. S.; Engel, M.; Lombardo, A.; Krupke, R.; Ferrari, A. C.; Avouris, P.; Steiner, M. Electroluminescence in single layer MoS2. Nano Lett. 2013, 13, 1416–1421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. [92]
    Pospischil, A.; Furchi, M. M.; Mueller, T. Solar-energy conversion and light emission in an atomic monolayer p–n diode. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2014, 9, 257–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. [93]
    Ross, J. S.; Klement, P.; Jones, A. M.; Ghimire, N. J.; Yan, J. Q.; Mandrus, D. G.; Taniguchi, T.; Watanabe, K.; Kitamura, K.; Yao, W. et al. Electrically tunable excitonic light-emitting diodes based on monolayer WSe2 p–n junctions. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2014, 9, 268–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. [94]
    Baugher, B. W.; Churchill, H. O.; Yang, Y. F.; Jarillo-Herrero, P. Optoelectronic devices based on electrically tunable p–n diodes in a monolayer dichalcogenide. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2014, 9, 262–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. [95]
    Zhang, Y. J.; Oka, T.; Suzuki, R.; Ye, J. T.; Iwasa, Y. Electrically switchable chiral light-emitting transistor. Science 2014, 344, 725–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. [96]
    Lopez-Sanchez, O.; Alarcon Llado, E.; Koman, V.; Fontcuberta i Morral, A.; Radenovic, A.; Kis, A. Light generation and harvesting in a van der Waals heterostructure. ACS Nano 2014, 8, 3042–3048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. [97]
    Cheng, R.; Li, D. H.; Zhou, H. L.; Wang, C.; Yin, A. X.; Jiang, S.; Liu, Y.; Chen, Y.; Huang, Y.; Duan, X. F. Electroluminescence and photocurrent generation from atomically sharp WSe2/MoS2 heterojunction p–n diodes. Nano Lett. 2014, 14, 5590–5597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. [98]
    Withers, F.; Del Pozo-Zamudio, O.; Mishchenko, A.; Rooney, A. P.; Gholinia, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Haigh, S. J.; Geim, A. K.; Tartakovskii, A. I. et al. Lightemitting diodes by band-structure engineering in van der Waals heterostructures. Nat. Mater. 2015, 14, 301–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. [99]
    Wu, S. F.; Buckley, S.; Schaibley, J. R.; Feng, L. F.; Yan, J. Q.; Mandrus, D. G.; Hatami, F.; Yao, W.; Vuckovic, J.; Majumdar, A. et al. Monolayer semiconductor nanocavity lasers with ultralow thresholds. Nature 2015, 520, 69–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. [100]
    Ye, Y.; Wong, Z. J.; Lu, X. F.; Ni, X. J.; Zhu, H. Y.; Chen, X. H.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, X. Monolayer excitonic laser. Nat. Photon. 2015, 9, 733–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. [101]
    Salehzadeh, O.; Djavid, M.; Tran, N. H.; Shih, I.; Mi, Z. T. Optically pumped two-dimensional MoS2 lasers operating at room-temperature. Nano Lett. 2015, 15, 5302–5306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. [102]
    Mak, K. F.; Lee, C.; Hone, J.; Shan, J.; Heinz, T. F. Atomically thin MoS2: A new direct-gap semiconductor. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2010, 105, 136805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. [103]
    Mak, K. F.; He, K. L.; Shan, J.; Heinz, T. F. Control of valley polarization in monolayer MoS2 by optical helicity. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2012, 7, 494–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. [104]
    Splendiani, A.; Sun, L.; Zhang, Y. B.; Li, T. S.; Kim, J.; Chim, C.-Y.; Galli, G.; Wang, F. Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2. Nano Lett. 2010, 10, 1271–1275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. [105]
    Li, T. Y.; Liu, Y.-H.; Porter, S.; Goldberger, J. E. Dimensionally reduced one-dimensional chains of TiSe2. Chem. Mater. 2013, 25, 1477–1479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. [106]
    Friend, R. H.; Jerome, D.; Liang, W. Y.; Mikkelsen, C.; Yoffe, A. D. Semimetallic character of TiSe2 and semiconductor character of TiS2 under pressure. J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 1977, 10, L705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. [107]
    Chen, C. H.; Fabian, W.; Brown, F. C.; Woo, K. C.; Davies, B.; DeLong, B.; Thompson, A. H. Angle-resolved photoemission studies of the band structure of TiSe2 and TiS2. Phys. Rev. B 1980, 21, 615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. [108]
    Traving, M.; Seydel, T.; Kipp, L.; Skibowski, M.; Starrost, F.; Krasovskii, E. E.; Perlov, A.; Schattke, W. Combined photoemission and inverse photoemission study of HfS2. Phys. Rev. B 2001, 63, 035107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. [109]
    Mattheiss, L. F. Band structures of transition-metaldichalcogenide layer compounds. Phys. Rev. B 1973, 8, 3719–3740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. [110]
    Georgiou, T.; Jalil, R.; Belle, B. D.; Britnell, L.; Gorbachev, R. V.; Morozov, S. V.; Kim, Y.-J.; Gholinia, A.; Haigh, S. J.; Makarovsky, O. et al. Vertical field-effect transistor based on graphene–WS2 heterostructures for flexible and transparent electronics. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2013, 8, 100–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. [111]
    Furchi, M. M.; Pospischil, A.; Libisch, F.; Burgdörfer, J.; Mueller, T. Photovoltaic effect in an electrically tunable van der Waals heterojunction. Nano Lett. 2014, 14, 4785–4791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. [112]
    Buscema, M.; Groenendijk, D. J.; Steele, G. A.; van der Zant, H. S. J.; Castellanos-Gomez, A. Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating. Nat. Commun. 2014, 5, 4651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. [113]
    Xia, F. N.; Wang, H.; Jia, Y. C. Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics. Nat. Commun. 2014, 5, 4458.Google Scholar
  114. [114]
    Xia, F. N.; Wang, H.; Xiao, D.; Dubey, M.; Ramasubramaniam, A. Two-dimensional material nanophotonics. Nat. Photon. 2014, 8, 899–907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. [115]
    Ling, X.; Wang, H.; Huang, S. X.; Xia, F. N.; Dresselhaus, M. S. The renaissance of black phosphorus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2015, 112, 4523–4530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. [116]
    Wang, X. M.; Jones, A. M.; Seyler, K. L.; Tran, V.; Jia, Y. C.; Zhao, H.; Wang, H.; Yang, L.; Xu, X. D.; Xia, F. N. Highly anisotropic and robust excitons in monolayer black phosphorus. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2015, 10, 517–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. [117]
    Yuan, H. T.; Liu, X. G.; Afshinmanesh, F.; Li, W.; Xu, G.; Sun, J.; Lian, B.; Curto, A. G.; Ye, G. J.; Hikita, Y. et al. Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p–n junction. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2015, 10, 707–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. [118]
    Xiao, D.; Liu, G.-B.; Feng, W. X.; Xu, X. D.; Yao, W. Coupled spin and valley physics in monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2012, 108, 196802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. [119]
    Zeng, H. L.; Dai, J. F.; Yao, W.; Xiao, D.; Cui, X. D. Valley polarization in MoS2 monolayers by optical pumping. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2012, 7, 490–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. [120]
    Jones, A. M.; Yu, H. Y.; Ghimire, N. J.; Wu, S. F.; Aivazian, G.; Ross, J. S.; Zhao, B.; Yan, J. Q.; Mandrus, D. G.; Xiao, D. et al. Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2013, 8, 634–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. [121]
    Yuan, H. T.; Wang, X. Q.; Lian, B.; Zhang, H. J.; Fang, X. F.; Shen, B.; Xu, G.; Xu, Y.; Zhang, S.-C.; Hwang, H. Y. et al. Generation and electric control of spin–valley-coupled circular photogalvanic current in WSe2. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2014, 9, 851–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. [122]
    Wang, X. M.; Xia, F. N. Van der Waals heterostructures: Stacked 2D materials shed light. Nat. Mater. 2015, 14, 264–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.United States Army Research LaboratoryAdelphiUSA
  3. 3.Department of Electrical EngineeringYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations