Activating ZnO nanorod photoanodes in visible light by Cu ion implantation
- First Online:
Utilization of visible light is of crucial importance for exploiting efficient semiconductor catalysts for solar water splitting. In this study, an advanced ion implantation method was utilized to dope Cu ions into ZnO nanorod arrays for photoelectrochemical water splitting in visible light. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that Cu+ together with a small amount of Cu2+ were highly dispersed within the ZnO nanorod arrays. The Cu ion doped ZnO nanorod arrays displayed extended optical absorption and enhanced photoelectrochemical performance under visible light illumination (λ > 420 nm). A considerable photocurrent density of 18 μA/cm2 at 0.8 V (vs. a saturated calomel electrode) was achieved, which was about 11 times higher than that of undoped ZnO nanorod arrays. This study proposes that ion implantation could be an effective approach for developing novel visible-light-driven photocatalytic materials for water splitting.
Keywordsion implantation Cu ion doping ZnO nanorods photoanode water splitting
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
12274_2013_401_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (836 kb)
- Huang, K.-C.; Chang, Y.-H.; Chen, C.-Y.; Liu, C.-Y.; Lin, L.-Y.; Vittal, R.; Wu, C.-G.; Lin, K.-F.; Ho, K.-C. Improved exchange reaction in an ionic liquid electrolyte of a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell by using 15-crown-5-functionalized MWCNT. J. Mater. Chem. 2011, 21, 18467–18474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fragalà, M. E.; Cacciotti, I.; Aleeva, Y.; Lo Nigro, R. L.; Bianco, A.; Malandrino, G.; Spinella, C.; Pezzotti, G.; Gusmano, G. Core-shell Zn-doped TiO2-ZnO nanofibers fabricated via a combination of electrospinning and metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. CrystEngComm 2010, 12, 3858–3865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ren, F.; Zhou, X. D.; Liu, Y. C.; Wang, Y. Q.; Cai, G. X.; Xiao, X. H.; Dai, Z. G.; Li, W. Q.; Yan, S. J.; Wu, W.; et al. Fabrication and properties of TiO2 nanofilms on different substrates by a novel and universal method of Ti-ion implantation and subsequent annealing. Nanotechnology 2013, 24, 255603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kulkarni, G. U.; Rao, C. N. R. EXAFS and XPS investigations of Cu/ZnO catalysts and their interaction with Co and methanol. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 2003, 22, 183–189.Google Scholar
- Jing, L. Q.; Qu, Y. C.; Wang, B. Q.; Li, S. D.; Jiang, B. J.; Yang, L. B.; Fu, W.; Fu, H. G.; Sun, J. Z. Review of photoluminescence performance of nano-sized semiconductor materials and its relationships with photocatalytic activity. Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C 2006, 90, 1773–1787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013