Nano Research

, Volume 2, Issue 5, pp 365–372 | Cite as

Control of aggregate size of polyethyleneimine-coated magnetic nanoparticles for magnetofection

  • Xiaoliang Wang
  • Linzhu Zhou
  • Yongjie Ma
  • Xu Li
  • Hongchen Gu
Open Access
Research Article

Abstract

Using magnetic nanoparticles to enhance gene transfection, a recently developed technique termed magnetofection, has been shown to be a powerful technology in gene delivery. The most widely used magnetic nanoparticles in this area are those coated with polyethyleneimine, which is a well known nonviral transfection agent. In this article, we report methods to control the aggregate size of polyethyleneimine-coated magnetite particles. These particles were then used to enhance transfection of green fluorescent protein (GFP) into NIH 3T3 cells in vitro. We find that the aggregate size of the particles has a great effect on their performance in magnetofection, with less aggregated magnetic particles being more effective in enhancing the gene transfection.

Keywords

Magnetofection transfection magnetic nanoparticles polyethyleneimine (PEI) 

Supplementary material

12274_2009_9035_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (381 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 340 KB.

References

  1. [1]
    Li, W.; Szoka, F. C. Lipid-based nanoparticles for nucleic acid delivery. Pharm. Res. 2007, 24, 438–449.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Wagner, E.; Kloeckner, J. Gene delivery using polymer therapeutics. Adv. Polym. Sci. 2006, 192, 135–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Carter, P. J.; Samulski, R. J. Adeno-associated viral vectors as gene delivery vehicles. Int. J. Mol. Med. 2000, 6, 17–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Pouton, C. W.; Seymour, L. W. Key issues in non-viral gene delivery. Adv. Drug Deliver. Rev. 2001, 46, 187–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Luo, D.; Saltzman, W. M. Enhancement of transfection by physical concentration of DNA at the cell surface. Nat. Biotechnol. 2000, 18, 893–895.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Mah, C.; Fraites, T. J.; Jr.; Zolotukhin, I.; Song, S.; Flotte, T. R.; Dobson, J.; Batich, C.; Byrne, B. J. Improved method of recombinant AAV2 delivery for systemic targeted gene therapy. Mol. Ther. 2002, 6, 106–112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Scherer, F.; Anton, M.; Schillinger, U.; Henkel, J.; Bergemann, C.; Kruger, A.; Gansbacher, B.; Plank, C. Magnetofection: Enhancing and targeting gene delivery by magnetic force in vitro and in vivo. Gene. Ther. 2002, 9, 102–109.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Mykhaylyk, O.; Antequera, Y. S.; Vlaskou, D.; Plank, C. Generation of magnetic nonviral gene transfer agents and magnetofection in vitro. Nat. Protoc. 2007, 2, 2391–2411.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Prow, T.; Smith, J. N.; Grebe, R.; Salazar, J. H.; Wang, N.; Kotov, N.; Lutty, G.; Leary, J. Construction, gene delivery, and expression of DNA tethered nanoparticles. Mol. Vis. 2006, 12, 606–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Kamau, S. W.; Hassa, P. O.; Steitz, B.; Petri-Fink, A.; Hofmann, H.; Hofmann-Amtenbrink, M.; von Rechenberg, B.; Hottiger, M. O. Enhancement of the efficiency of non-viral gene delivery by application of pulsed magnetic field. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006, 34, e40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Steitz, B.; Hofmann, H.; Kamau, S. W.; Hassa, P. O.; Hottiger, M. O.; von Rechenberg, B.; Hofmann-Amtenbrink, M.; Petri-Fink, A. Characterization of PEI-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for transfection: Size distribution, colloidal properties and DNA interaction. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 2007, 311, 300–305.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Boussif, O.; Lezoualc’h, F.; Zanta, M. A.; Mergny, M. D.; Scherman, D.; Demeneix, B.; Behr, J. P. A versatile vector for gene and oligonucleotide transfer into cells in culture and in vivo: Polyethylenimine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1995, 92, 7297–7301.CrossRefPubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Dunlap, D. D.; Maggi, A.; Soria, M.; Monaco, L. Nanoscopic structure of DNA condensed for gene delivery. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997, 25, 3095–3101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Remy-Kristensen, A.; Clamme, J. P. Vuilleumier, C.; Kuhry, J. G.; Memy, Y. Role of endocytosis in the transfection of L929 fibroblasts by polyethylenimine/DNA complexes. BBA-Biomembranes 2001, 1514, 21–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Gersting, S. W.; Schillinger, U.; Lausier, J.; Nicklaus, P.; Rudolph, C; Plank, C.; Reinhardt, D.; Rosenecker, J. Gene delivery to respiratory epithelial cells by magnetofection. J. Gene. Med. 2004, 6, 913–922.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Huth, S.; Lausier, J.; Gersting, S. W.; Rudolph, C.; Plank, C.; Welsch, U.; Rosenecker, J. Insights into the mechanism of magnetofection using PEI-based magnetofectins for gene transfer. J. Gene. Med. 2004, 6, 923–936.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    McBain, S. C.; Yiu, H. H. P.; Haj, A. E.; Dobson, J. Polyethyleneimine functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles as agents for DNA delivery and transfection. J. Mater. Chem. 2007, 17, 2561–2565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Xu, Z. P.; Zeng, Q. H.; Lu, G. Q,; Yu, A. B. Inorganic nanoparticles as carriers for efficient cellular delivery. Chem. Eng. Sci. 2006, 61, 1027–1040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Prabha, S.; Zhou, W. Z.; Panyam, J.; Labhasetwar, V. Sizedependency of nanoparticle-mediated gene transfection: Studies with fractionated nanoparticles. Int. J. Pharm. 2002, 244, 105–115.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Yu, S.; Chow, G. M. Carboxyl group (−CO2H) functionalized ferrimagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for potential bio-applications. J. Mater. Chem. 2004, 14, 2781–2786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Ross, P. C.; Hui, S. W. Lipoplex size is a major determinant of in vitro lipofection efficiency. Gene Ther. 1999, 6, 651–659.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Choosakoonkriang, S.; Lobo, B. A.; Koe, G. S.; Koe, J. G.; Middaugh, C. R. Biophysical characterization of PEI/DNA complexes. J. Pharm. Sci. 2003, 92, 1710–1722.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaoliang Wang
    • 1
  • Linzhu Zhou
    • 1
  • Yongjie Ma
    • 1
  • Xu Li
    • 1
  • Hongchen Gu
    • 1
  1. 1.Nano Biomedicine Research Center, Med-X Research InstituteShanghai Jiaotong UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations