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Generating prototypical residential building geometry models using a new hybrid approach


Building prototyping has regularly been used in building performance analyses with statistically feasible models. The novelty of this research involves a new hybrid approach combining stratified sampling and k-means clustering to establish building geometry prototypes. The research focuses on residential buildings in Ningbo, China. Seventeen small residential districts (SRDs) containing 367 residential buildings were systemically selected for survey and data collection. The stratified sampling used building construction year as the main parameter to generate stratification. Floor numbers, shape coefficients, floor areas, and window-to-wall ratios were used as the four observations for k-means clustering. Based on this new approach, nine building geometry prototypes were identified and modelled. These statistically representative prototypes provide building geometrical information and characteristic-based evaluations for subsequent building performance analysis.

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The research is sponsored by the Ningbo Natural Science Funding Scheme (Project code: 2019A610393). The Zhejiang Provincial Department of Science and Technology is acknowledged for this research under its Provincial Key Laboratory Programme (2020E10018).

Author information




Wu Deng conceived and designed the research analysis and revised the paper. Yuanli Ma contributed to the research analysis design and partook in data collation and processing and wrote the paper. Jing Xie, Professor Tim Heath and Yuanda Hong contributed to the design of the research analysis and paper revision. Yeyu Xiang contributed to the data support.

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Correspondence to Wu Deng.

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Ma, Y., Deng, W., Xie, J. et al. Generating prototypical residential building geometry models using a new hybrid approach. Build. Simul. 15, 17–28 (2022).

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  • building prototyping
  • geometry models
  • new hybrid approach
  • Ningbo China