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Applicability of high-temperature cooling systems in different European countries from the view of the condensation risk


Due to the different approaches in determining the ventilation airflow rate per person for workspaces, where high-temperature air conditioning systems are used for air conditioning, problems with the condensation of water vapour on the cold surfaces of the system can occur. The article analyses the risk of condensation in various European cities using the available climatic data. Systems with cooling ceilings and cooling beams with a ventilation device operating in parallel are taken into account. Different ventilation airflow rates per person were analysed. On the example of a room equipped with high-temperature cooling, an energy simulation calculation is performed, which includes a ventilation and air-conditioning system with the possibility of capacity control. It is clear from the results that the condensation of water vapour can be prevented by technical measures at the cost of reducing the cooling capacity, which can affect the achievement of the thermal comfort of those present. In the end, suitable solutions are discussed, which should already be adopted at the time the device is designed so that the risk of condensation is not a major obstacle in the operation of these energy-efficient systems. An irreplaceable role in the operation of high-temperature cooling systems is played by a measurement and control system with a suitable algorithm to prevent condensation.

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c :

specific heat [J/(kg·K)]


condensation risk [%]

h :

enthalpy [kJ/kg]


mass flow rate [kg/s]


mean radiant temperature [°C]


predicted mean vote [—]

\(\dot V\) :

volume airflow rate [m3/h]

\(\dot Q\) :

heat flux [W]


relative humidity [%]

t :

temperature [°C]

W :

humidity ratio [g/kg]

ρ :

air density [kg/m3]




cooling coil




dew point







p :







water vapour




wet bulb


inlet water


return water


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Correspondence to Vladimír Zmrhal.

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Zmrhal, V., Barták, M. Applicability of high-temperature cooling systems in different European countries from the view of the condensation risk. Build. Simul. 14, 1453–1466 (2021).

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  • ventilation
  • air-conditioning
  • cooled ceilings
  • chilled beams
  • low energy cooling
  • risk of condensation