Skip to main content
Log in

Development and verification of the open source platform, HAM-Tools, for hygrothermal performance simulation of buildings using a stochastic approach

  • Research Article
  • Building Thermal, Lighting and Acoustics Modeling
  • Published:
Building Simulation Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Building envelope design and analysis through simulation tools are areas of research and professional practice within the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industries that can have substantial economic outcomes. Approximately 20% of whole building capital costs are associated with building envelopes. High moisture content within building envelopes is known to promote mold and corrosion while also reducing thermal resistance. Thus, simulating envelope moisture behavior is useful in evaluating designs. To allow for future stochastic and degradation modeling this project has augmented the open source platform, HAM-Tools and verified its results by using WUFI Pro 6.1 software. HAM-Tools is a robust one-dimensional H.A.M. analysis software using MATLAB and Simulink computational environments which allows for further development and research. In this work, wind-driven rain, rain penetration, as well as heat & moisture sources in air layers have been added to HAM-Tools. The paper compares the results from HAM-Tools and WUFI for a set of common ventilated cladding scenarios. Insulation degradation (which cannot be analyzed in WUFI) is also integrated into HAM-Tools and moisture content is simulated over a 10-year period to demonstrate how the platform can be used to examine long term moisture impact. The results of the study show that HAM-Tools and WUFI can produce relatively close results for moisture content within the envelope given the same ventilated scenarios. The 10-year studies with and without insulation degradation show that there are times where there are significant differences in the moisture content predicted with and without insulation degradation.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • ASHRAE (2016). Standard 160-2016: Criteria for Moisture Control Design Analysis in Buildings. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aude P, Tabary L, Depecker P (2000). Sensitivity analysis and validation of buildings’ thermal models using adjoint-code method. Energy and Buildings, 31: 267–283.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bradtmueller JP, Foley SP (2014). Historical trends of exterior wall materials used in us residential construction. Paper presented at the 50th ASC Annual International Conference Proceedings.

  • Crosthwaite D (2000). The global construction market: a cross-sectional analysis. Construction Management and Economics, 18: 619–627.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • de Wilde P, Tian W, Augenbroe G (2011). Longitudinal prediction of the operational energy use of buildings. Building and Environment, 46: 1670–1680.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Delgado JMPQ, Ramos NMM, Barreira E, de Freitas VP (2010). A critical review of hygrothermal models used in porous building materials. Journal of Porous Media, 13: 221–234.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Echenagucia TM, Capozzoli A, Cascone Y, Sassone M (2015). The early design stage of a building envelope: Multi-objective search through heating, cooling and lighting energy performance analysis. Applied Energy, 154: 577–591.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • EN B (2007). 15026: 2007: Hygrothermal performance of building components and building elements—Assessment of moisture transfer by numerical simulation. German version DIN EN, 15026.

  • Ge H, Siassi S, Horvat PM (2013). Validating Wind-Driven Rain Module in HAM-Tools.

  • Hagentoft C-E (2002). HAMSTAD-WP2 Modeling, Report R-02:9. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.

  • Hagentoft C-E, Ramos NM, Grunewald J (2015). Annex 55, Reliability of Energy Efficient Building Retrofitting-Probability Assessment of Performance and Cost (RAP-RETRO): Stochastic Data. Chalmers University of Technology.

  • Hägerstedt SO, Harderup L-E (2011). Control of moisture safety design by comparison between calculations and measurements in passive house walls made of wood. Paper presented at the XII DBMC—International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components.

  • Kumaran M (2002). A thermal and moisture transport property database for common building and insulating materials: 1018-RP: Final Report for American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers. National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lstiburek J, Ueno K, Musunuru S (2016). Strategy Guideline: Modeling Enclosure Design in Above-Grade Walls. Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI).

  • Mathworks (2015). Guide, MATLAB User Manual.

  • Mudarri D, Fisk WJ (2007). Public health and economic impact of dampness and mold. Indoor Air, 17: 226–235.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nicolai A, Grunewald J (2006). Delphin 5: Coupled Heat, Air, Moisture and Salt Transport (User Manual and Program Reference). Dresden University of Technology, Germany.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nielsen KF, Holm G, Uttrup LP, Nielsen PA (2004). Mould growth on building materials under low water activities. Influence of humidity and temperature on fungal growth and secondary metabolism. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 54: 325–336.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pietrzyk K, Kurkinen K, Hagentoft C-E (2004). An example of application of limit state approach for reliability analysis of moisture performance of a building component. Journal of Thermal Envelope and Building Science, 28: 9–26.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pietrzyk K, Hagentoft CE (2008). Reliability analysis in building physics design. Building and Environment, 43: 558–568.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pietrzyk K (2010). Thermal performance of a building envelope—A probabilistic approach. Journal of Building Physics, 34: 77–96.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • RSMeans (2011). RSMeans Square Foot Costs 2012: R. S. Means Company, Inc.

  • Ryan EM, Sanquist TF (2012). Validation of building energy modeling tools under idealized and realistic conditions. Energy and Buildings, 47: 375–382.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Salonvaara M, Sedlbauer K, Holm A, Pazera M (2010). Effect of selected weather year for hygrothermal analyses. In: Proceedings of Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings XI. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Salonvaara M, Zhang J, Pezoulas L, Karagiozis K (2011). Final Report: Environmental weather loads for hygrothermal analysis design of buildings, ASHRAE RP-1325.

  • Sasic Kalagasidis A (2004). HAM-Tools—An integrated simulation tool for heat, air and moisture transfer analyses in building physics. PhD Thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stephenson LD, Heffron A, Mehnert BB, Alvey JB, Boddu V, Gao EJ, Lawrence DJ, Kumar A (2015). Prediction of long term degradation of insulating materials. Defense Technical Information Center, 2015.

  • Tian W, de Wilde P (2011). Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of building performance using probabilistic climate projections: A UK case study. Automation in Construction, 20: 1096–1109.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • US Bureau of Economic Analysis. (2019). Gross Domestic Product by Industry: Fourth Quarter and Annual 2018 [Press release]. Available at https://www.bea.gov/system/files/2019-04/gdpind418_0.pdf

  • Viitanen H, Toratti T, Makkonen L, Peuhkuri R, Ojanen T, Ruokolainen L, Räisänen J (2010). Towards modelling of decay risk of wooden materials. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, 68: 303–313.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zabel RA, Morrell JJ (2012). Wood Microbiology: Decay and Its Prevention. San Diego, USA: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zelinka SL, Rammer DR (2009). Corrosion rates of fasteners in treated wood exposed to 100% relative humidity. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 21: 758–763.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zirkelbach D, Schmidt T, Kehrer M, Künzel H (2007). Wufi® Pro-Manual. Fraunhofer Institute.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Daniel Chung.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Chung, D., Wen, J. & Lo, L.J. Development and verification of the open source platform, HAM-Tools, for hygrothermal performance simulation of buildings using a stochastic approach. Build. Simul. 13, 497–514 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-019-0594-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-019-0594-5

Keywords

Navigation