The building energy demand for heating and cooling is changing due to climate change. The adoption of climate change adaptation measures at the building scale aims at limiting heating and cooling demands. In previous studies on adaptation measures little attention has been paid to lightweight semi-portable buildings, which are increasingly used to temporarily house the growing number of small households (1–2 persons) in peripheral and derelict areas. In this paper the impact of passive climate adaptation measures and building orientation on heating and cooling demands is assessed for a detached, lightweight, semi-portable residential building by means of building energy simulations (BES), considering two climate scenarios for the Netherlands: current climate and a future climate (2050). The results show that the most efficient adaptation measure consists in a combination of exterior solar shading and an increase of thermal resistance of the building envelope, which reduces the annual heating and cooling demand–averaged over eight building orientations – by 11% for the current climate and 15% for the future climate. The impact of building orientation varies according to the climate scenario. Compared to the average over the eight orientations considered, the annual cooling demand for a single orientation varies between about −31% and +22% and between about −24% and +18% for the current and future climate, respectively. For the case without adaptation measures, optimizing the building orientation leads to annual total energy savings of about 4% for the current and 3% for the future climate.
Abanda FH, Byers L (2016). An investigation of the impact of building orientation on energy consumption in a domestic building using emerging BIM (Building Information Modelling). Energy, 97: 517–527.
Aebischer B, Catenazzi G, Jakob M (2007). Impact of climate change on thermal comfort, heating and cooling energy demand in Europe. In: Proceedings ECEEE 2007 Summer study “Saving Energy—Just Do It!”, France.
Akbari H, Bretz S, Kurn DM, Hanford J (1997). Peak power and cooling energy savings of high-albedo roofs. Energy and Buildings, 25: 117–126.
Aksoy UT, Inalli M (2006). Impacts of some building passive design parameters on heating demand for a cold region. Building and Environment, 41: 1742–1754.
Alghoul SK, Rijabo HG, Mashena ME (2017). Energy consumption in buildings: A correlation for the influence of window to wall ratio and window orientation in Tripoli, Libya. Journal of Building Engineering, 11: 82–86.
ASHRAE (2001a). International Weather for Energy Calculations (IWEC Weather Files). Users Manual and CD-ROM. American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Available at https://doi.org/energyplus.net/weather-location/europe_wmo_region_6/NLD//NLD_Beek.063800_IWEC
ASHRAE (2001b). ASHRAE Handbook – Fundamentals. Atlanta, GA, USA: American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.
ASHRAE (2009). ASHRAE Handbook – HVAC Applications. Atlanta, GA, USA: American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.
ASHRAE (2013). ASHRAE Standard 169-2013. Climatic Data for Building Design Standards. Atlanta, GA, USA: American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.
Arent DJ, Tol RSJ, Faust E, Hella JP, Kumar S, Strzepek KM, Tóth FL, Yan D (2014). Key economic sectors and services. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, et al. (eds), Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group IIto the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Bellia L, Marino C, Minichiello F, Pedace A (2014). An overview on solar shading systems for buildings. Energy Procedia, 62: 309–317.
Berardi U, GhaffarianHoseini A, GhaffarianHoseini A (2014). State-of-the-art analysis of the environmental benefits of green roofs. Applied Energy, 115: 411–428.
Berardi U, Tronchin L, Manfren M, Nastasi B (2018). On the effects of variation of thermal conductivity in buildings in the Italian construction sector. Energies, 11: 872.
Bouwbesluit (2012). Bouwbesluit online. Available at https://doi.org/www.bouwbesluitonline.nl/
Bretz SE, Akbari H (1997). Long-term performance of high-albedo roof coatings. Energy and Buildings, 25: 159–167.
Bretz S, Akbari H, Rosenfeld A, Taha H (1992). Implementation of solar-reflective surfaces: Materials and utility programs. Technical Report, LBL-32467. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.
Carbonari A, Rossi G, Romagnoni P (2002). Optimal orientation and automatic control of external shading devices in office buildings. Environmental Management and Health, 13: 392–404.
CCWorldWeatherGen (2013). Climate Change World Weather File Generator Manual (version 1.8). Sustainable Energy Research Group, University of Southampton.
Chalmers P (2014). Climate change: Implications for buildings. Key findings from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. Available at https://doi.org/www.gbpn.org/newsroom/report-climate-change-implications-buildings
Chan ALS, Chow TT (2013). Energy and economic performance of green roof system under future climatic conditions in Hong Kong. Energy and Buildings, 64: 182–198.
Chin G, Desjarlais A, Estes M, Hitchcock D, Lewis M, Parker D, Rosenthal J, Ross L, Ryan S, Schmeltz R, Turnbull P, Zalph B (2014). Reducing urban heat islands: Compendium of strategies. Cool roofs. Available at https://doi.org/www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-08/documents/coolroofscompendium_ch4.pdf
Coutts AM, Daly E, Beringer J, Tapper NJ (2013). Assessing practical measures to reduce urban heat: Green and cool roofs. Building and Environment, 70: 266–276.
de Wilde P, Coley D (2012). The implications of a changing climate for buildings. Building and Environment, 55: 1–7.
EnergyPlus (2010). EnergyPlus Documentation—Engineering Reference: The Reference to EnergyPlus Calculations.
Fleiter T, Elsland R, Rehfeldt M, Steinbach J, Reiter U, Catenazzi G, Jakob M, Rutten C, Harmsen R, Dittmann F, Rivière P, Stabat P (2017). Profile of heating and cooling demand in 2015. Heat Roadmap Europe. Available at https://doi.org/www.heatroadmap.eu
Gaffin SR, Khanbilvardi R, Rosenzweig C (2009). Development of a green roof environmental monitoring and meteorological network in New York City. Sensors, 9: 2647–2660.
Gasparella A, Pernigotto G, Cappelletti F, Romagnoni P, Baggio P (2011). Analysis and modelling of window and glazing systems energy performance for a well insulated residential building. Energy and Buildings, 43: 1030–1037.
Gromke C, Blocken B, Janssen W, Merema B, van Hooff T, Timmermans H (2015). CFD analysis of transpirational cooling by vegetation: Case study for specific meteorological conditions during a heat wave in Arnhem, Netherlands. Building and Environment, 83: 11–26.
Heijmans B.V. (2016). Heijmans ONE. Prijsoverzicht en Technische Beschriving. Available at https://doi.org/www.heijmans.nl/media/filer_public/1d/a5/1da5cb9c-319d-4b92-8629-5fb6ae254ba0/bijlage_ prijs-technisch_heijmans_one.pdf
Heijmans B.V. (2018). Heijmans ONE. Available at https://doi.org/www.heijmans.nl/nl/heijmans-one/
Huang KT, Hwang RL (2016). Future trends of residential building cooling energy and passive adaptation measures to counteract climate change: The case of Taiwan. Applied Energy, 184: 1230–1240.
IEA (2013). Energy Efficient Building Envelopes. Paris: International Energy Agency.
Invidiata A, Ghisi E (2016). Impact of climate change on heating and cooling energy demand in houses in Brazil. Energy and Buildings, 130: 20–32.
ISSO (2011). Publicatie 32: Uitgangspunten Temperatuursimulatieberekeningen. Rotterdam, the Netherlands: Stichting ISSO.
Itard L, Meijer F (2008). Towards a sustainable Northern European housing stock. Figures, facts and future. Delft, the Netherlands.
Jaber S, Ajib S (2011). Optimum, technical and energy efficiency design of residential building in Mediterranean region. Energy and Buildings, 43: 1829–1834.
Jentsch MF, Bahaj AS, James PAB (2008). Climate change future proofing of buildings—Generation and assessment of building simulation weather files. Energy and Buildings, 40: 2148–2168.
Jentsch MF, James PAB, Bourikas L, Bahaj AS (2013). Transforming existing weather data for worldwide locations to enable energy and building performance simulation under future climates. Renewable Energy, 55: 514–524.
Kiwa Nederland B.V. (2012). Nationale Beoordelingsrichtlijn BRL 2202. Rijswijk, the Netherlands.
KNMI (2015). KNMI’14 climate scenarios for the Netherlands. A guide for professionals in climate adaptation. De Bilt, the Netherlands.
Kolokotroni M, Ren X, Davies M, Mavrogianni A (2012). London’s urban heat island: Impact on current and future energy consumption in office buildings. Energy and Buildings, 47: 302–311.
Kolokotsa D, Santamouris M, Zerefos SC (2013). Green and cool roofs’ urban heat island mitigation potential in European climates for office buildings under free floating conditions. Solar Energy, 95: 118–130.
Köppen W, Geiger R (1954). Klima der Erde. Wall Map 1:16 Mill. Klett-Perthes. Gotha, Germany.
La Roche P, Berardi U (2014). Comfort and energy savings with active green roofs. Energy and Buildings, 82: 492–504.
Ministerie van VROM (2009). Energiegedrag in De Woning. Den Haag, the Netherlands.
Montazeri H, Blocken B (2017). New generalized expressions for forced convective heat transfer coefficients at building facades and roofs. Building and Environment, 119: 153–168.
NNI (2011). NEN-EN 1991-1-4+A1+C2: Eurocode 1: Actions on structures – Part 1-4: General actions – Wind actions. Delft, the Netherlands: Nederlands Normalisatie-Instituut.
Ortiz J, Fonseca A, Salom J, Garrido N, Fonseca P, Russo V (2016). Comfort and economic criteria for selecting passive measures for the energy refurbishment of residential buildings in Catalonia. Energy and Buildings, 110: 195–210.
Pacheco R, Ordóñez J, Martínez G (2012). Energy efficient design of building: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16: 3559–3573.
Pérez G, Coma J, Martorell I, Cabeza LF (2014). Vertical Greenery Systems (VGS) for energy saving in buildings: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 39: 139–165.
Pierangioli L, Cellai G, Ferrise R, Trombi G, Bindi M (2017). Effectiveness of passive measures against climate change: Case studies in Central Italy. Building Simulation, 10: 459–479.
Pino A, Bustamante W, Escobar R, Encinas F, Pino FE (2012). Thermal and lighting behavior of office buildings in Santiago of Chile. Energy and Buildings, 47: 441–449.
Porritt SM, Cropper PC, Shao L, Goodier CI (2012). Ranking of interventions to reduce dwelling overheating during heat waves. Energy and Buildings, 55: 16–27.
Reilly A, Kinnane O (2017). The impact of thermal mass on building energy consumption. Applied Energy, 198: 108–121.
Saadatian O, Sopian K, Salleh E, Lim CH, Riffat S, Saadatian E, Toudeshki A, Sulaiman MY (2013). A review of energy aspects of green roofs. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 23: 155–168.
Sajjadian SM (2017). Performance evaluation of well-insulated versions of contemporary wall systems—A case study of London for a warmer climate. Buildings, 7(1): 6.
Santamouris M (2014). Cooling the cities—A review of reflective and green roof mitigation technologies to fight heat island and improve comfort in urban environments. Solar Energy, 103: 682–703.
Spanos I, Simons M, Holmes KL (2005). Cost savings by application of passive solar heating. Structural Survey, 23: 111–130.
Sproul J, Wan MP, Mandel BH, Rosenfeld AH (2014). Economic comparison of white, green, and black flat roofs in the United States. Energy and Buildings, 71: 20–27.
Stevanović S (2015). Parametric study of a cost-optimal, energy efficient office building in Serbia. Energy, 117: 492–505.
Susca T, Gaffin SR, Dell’Osso GR (2011). Positive effects of vegetation: Urban heat island and green roofs. Environmental Pollution, 159: 2119–2126.
Susorova I, Tabibzadeh M, Rahman A, Clack HL, Elnimeiri M (2013). The effect of geometry factors on fenestration energy performance and energy savings in office buildings. Energy and Buildings, 57: 6–13.
Synnefa A, Santamouris M, Akbari H (2007). Estimating the effect of using cool coatings on energy loads and thermal comfort in residential buildings in various climatic conditions. Energy and Buildings, 39: 1167–1174.
Synnefa A, Saliari M, Santamouris M (2012). Experimental and numerical assessment of the impact of increased roof reflectance on a school building in Athens. Energy and Buildings, 55: 7–15.
van Hooff T, Blocken B, Hensen JLM, Timmermans HJP (2014). On the predicted effectiveness of climate adaptation measures for residential buildings. Building and Environment, 82: 300–316.
van Hooff T, Blocken B, Timmermans HJP, Hensen JLM (2016). Analysis of the predicted effect of passive climate adaptation measures on energy demand for cooling and heating in a residential building. Energy, 94: 811–820.
van Kempen P (2000). Marktanalyse en-prognose van airconditioningsystemen. Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
VHK (2008). Elektrische apparatuur in Nederlandse huishoudens. Delft, the Netherlands: van Holsteijn en Kemna B.V.
Waddicor DA, Fuentes E, Sisó L, Salom J, Favre B, Jiménez C, Azar M (2016). Climate change and building ageing impact on building energy performance and mitigation measures application: A case study in Turin, northern Italy. Building and Environment, 102: 13–25.
Walton GN (1983). Thermal Analysis Research Program Reference Manual. NBSSIR 83–2655. Washington, DC, USA.
Wan KKW, Li DHW, Pan W, Lam JC (2012). Impact of climate change on building energy use in different climate zones and mitigation and adaptation implications. Applied Energy, 97: 274–282.
Wang H, Chen Q (2014). Impact of climate change heating and cooling energy use in buildings in the United States. Energy and Buildings, 82: 428–436.
Wong K, Fan Q (2013). Building information modelling (BIM) for sustainable building design. Facilities, 31: 138–157.
Xu X, Yuan D, Sha H, Ji Y, Xu P (2012). Energy consumption simulation of the prototypical building for optimizing the orientation of building model in the simulated environment. In: Proceedings of the International Building Performance Simulation Association (ASim2012), Shanghai, China.
Yildiz Y, Korkmaz K, Özbalta TG, Arsan ZD (2012). An approach for developing sensitive design parameter guidelines to reduce the energy requirements of low-rise apartment buildings. Applied Energy, 93: 337–347.
Zhang Y, Barrett P (2012). Factors influencing occupants’ blindcontrol behaviour in a naturally ventilated office building. Building and Environment, 54: 137–147.
This research was financially supported by the PhD Impulse Program of the Eindhoven University of Technology, in collaboration with the construction company Heijmans B.V., the Netherlands. Twan van Hooff is currently a postdoctoral fellow of the Research Foundation Flanders (FWO) and acknowledges its financial support (project FWO 12R9718N).
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://doi.org/creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
About this article
Cite this article
Vasaturo, R., van Hooff, T., Kalkman, I. et al. Impact of passive climate adaptation measures and building orientation on the energy demand of a detached lightweight semi-portable building. Build. Simul. 11, 1163–1177 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-018-0470-8
- building energy simulation
- heating demand
- cooling demand
- passive climate adaptation measures
- building orientation
- climate change