Advertisement

Building Simulation

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 265–275 | Cite as

Numerical modeling of particle deposition in the environmental control systems of commercial airliners on ground

  • Yudi Liu
  • Qing Cao
  • Wei Liu
  • Chao-Hsin Lin
  • Daniel Wei
  • Steven Baughcum
  • Zhengwei Long
  • Xiong Shen
  • Qingyan Chen
Research Article Indoor/Outdoor Airflow and Air Quality

Abstract

The environmental control system (ECS) of a commercial airplane supplies air to the cabin in order to maintain a safe, comfortable, and healthy environment for passengers and crew members. Because about half of the air supplied to the cabin is outside air, atmosphere particles could deposit in the ECS before entering the cabin. This investigation developed a model to calculate the particle deposition rates in the ECS for different particle sizes on the basis of a set of empirical equations from the literature. The model was used to predict particle deposition in five types of commercial airplanes (a regional jet, Boeing 737-800, Airbus 319, Airbus 320, and MD-82). The predicted results were compared with data measured in-flight or during operation on the ground and agreed well with the measured data. Both the simulated and measured results showed that almost all the large particles (d p ≥ 5.0 μm) and 75% of small particles (d p = 0.3–5.0 μm) were deposited in the ECS. Most of the particle deposition occurred near the entrance to the ECS where the geometry was the most complex.

Keywords

airplane environmental control system air quality particulate matter deposition 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research presented in this paper was financially supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (the 973 Program) through Grant No. 2012CB720100.

References

  1. ASHRAE (2001). ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamentals. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers.Google Scholar
  2. ANSYS (2006). ANSYS Gambit version 2.4.6. Lebanon, NH, USA: ANSYS, Inc.Google Scholar
  3. Cao Q, Liu Y, Liu W, Lin C-H, Wei D, Baughcum S, Norris S, Shen X, Long Z, Chen Q (2016). Experimental study of particle deposition in the environmental control systems of commercial airliners. Building and Environment, 96: 62–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen M, Zhang X, Cai, W (2008). Operating analysis of airplane air conditioning heat exchanger. Journal of Shanghai University of Engineering Science, 22: 310–314. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  5. CNEMC (2014). Air quality report of 74 cities in the first half year of 2013. Available at http://www.cnemc.cn/publish/totalWebSite/news/news_37029.html.Google Scholar
  6. Fan FG, Ahmadi G (1993). A sublayer model for turbulent deposition of particles in vertical ducts with smooth and rough surfaces. Journal of Aerosol Science, 24: 45–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. FlightStats (2014). Airline performance reports. Available at http://www.flightstats.com.Google Scholar
  8. Haghighi-Khoshkhoo R, McCluskey F (2007). Air-side fouling of compact heat exchangers for discrete particle size ranges. Heat Transfer Engineering, 28: 58–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kan H, Chen B, Hong C (2009). Health impact of outdoor air pollution in China: Current knowledge and future research needs. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117: A187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lai ACK (2003). Particle deposition indoors: A review. Indoor Air, 12: 211–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lu Y (2008). Practical Heating, Air-Conditioning System Design Manual. Beijing: China Architecture & Building Press. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  12. McDonagh A, Byrne MA (2014). A study of the size distribution of aerosol particles resuspended from clothing surfaces. Journal of Aerosol Science, 75: 94–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. McFarland AR, Gong H, Muyshondt A, Wente WB, Anand, NK (1997). Aerosol deposition in bends with turbulent flow. Environmental Science & Technology, 31: 3371–3377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Papineni RS, Rosenthal FS (1997). The size distribution of droplets in the exhaled breath of healthy human subjects. Journal of Aerosol Medicine, 10: 105–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Shanghai CS Capital (2013). Available at http://www.cscapital.cn/.Google Scholar
  16. Siegel JA, Nazaroff WW (2003). Predicting particle deposition on HVAC heat exchangers. Atmospheric Environment, 37: 5587–5596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sippola MR, Nazaroff WW (2002). Particle deposition from turbulent flow: Review of published research and its applicability to ventilation ducts in commercial buildings. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sun K, Lu L, Jiang H (2011). A computational investigation of particle distribution and deposition in a 90° bend incorporating a particle–wall model. Building and Environment, 46: 1251–1262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tian L, Ahmadi G (2007). Particle deposition in turbulent duct flows—Comparisons of different model predictions. Journal of Aerosol Science, 38: 377–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wang M, Lin C-H, Chen Q (2011). Determination of particle deposition in enclosed spaces by Detached Eddy Simulation with the Lagrangian method. Atmospheric Environment, 45: 5376–5384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wu J, Zhao B (2007). Effect of ventilation duct as a particle filter. Building and Environment, 42: 2523–2529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Yang M, Ke P, Zhang S (2014). Preliminary investigation of the effect of aircraft ECS to the bleed air contamination: Numerical tool development. In: Proceedigns of 44th International Conference on Environmental Systems.Google Scholar
  23. You R, Zhao B, Chen C (2012). Developing an empirical equation for modeling particle deposition velocity onto inclined surfaces in indoor environments. Aerosol Science and Technology, 46: 1090–1099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhao B, Chen J (2006). Numerical analysis of particle deposition in ventilation duct. Building and Environment, 41: 710–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zhang J, Li A, Li D (2008). Modeling deposition of particles in typical horizontal ventilation duct flows. Energy Conversion and Management, 49: 3672–3683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zhou B, Zhao B, Tan Z (2011). How particle resuspension from inner surfaces of ventilation ducts affects indoor air quality—A modeling analysis. Aerosol Science and Technology, 45: 996–1009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yudi Liu
    • 1
  • Qing Cao
    • 1
  • Wei Liu
    • 1
    • 4
  • Chao-Hsin Lin
    • 2
  • Daniel Wei
    • 3
  • Steven Baughcum
    • 2
  • Zhengwei Long
    • 1
  • Xiong Shen
    • 1
  • Qingyan Chen
    • 4
    • 1
  1. 1.Tianjin Key Laboratory of Indoor Air Environmental Quality Control, School of Environmental Science and EngineeringTianjin UniversityTianjinChina
  2. 2.The Boeing CompanySeattleUSA
  3. 3.Boeing Research & Technology—ChinaBeijingChina
  4. 4.School of Mechanical EngineeringPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations