Building Simulation

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 61–78 | Cite as

Determination of indoor humidity profile using a whole-building hygrothermal model

Research Article / Indoor/Outdoor Airflow and Air Quality

Abstract

During the design of a new building or retrofitting of an existing one, it is important to reliably assess the indoor humidity levels of the building as it can potentially affect the building envelope durability, occupants’ comfort and health risks associated with mould growth. Simplistic assumptions of indoor humidity profiles, which ignore the dynamic coupling of the indoor environment and building enclosure, may lead to inaccurate conclusions about the indoor environment and moisture performance of the building enclosure. In this paper, a whole-building hygrothermal model called HAMFitPlus, which takes into account the dynamic interactions between building envelope components, mechanical systems and indoor heat and moisture generation mechanisms, is used to assess the indoor humidity condition of an existing occupied house. HAMFitPlus is developed on SimuLink development platform and integrates COMSOL multiphysics with MatLab. The basic input parameters of the model are discussed in detail, and its simulation results are presented. In general, the HAMFitPlus simulation results are in good agreement with the measured data.

Keywords

coupled HAM analysis whole-building hygrothermal modeling energy efficiency indoor environment building envelope performance 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abranties V, Freitas V (1989). User influence upon building indoor humidity. Housing Science and Its Applications, 13: 277–282.Google Scholar
  2. Athenatis AK, Santamouris M (2002). Thermal Anaylsis and Design of Passive Solar Buildings. London: James & James Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  3. ASHRAE Fundamentals (2009). ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers.Google Scholar
  4. ASHRAE Standard 160P (2006). Design Criteria for Moisture Control in Buildings. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers.Google Scholar
  5. Christian JE (1994). Moisture sources. In: Trechsel HR (ed), Moisture Control in Buildings, ASTM Manual Series, MNL 18, (pp. 176–182). Philadelphia, PA: ASTM International.Google Scholar
  6. Clausen G, Rode C, Bornehag C-G, Sundell J (1999). Dampness in buildings and health: Interdisciplinary research at the national center for indoor environment and energy. In: Proceeding of the 5th Symposium of Building Physics in The Nordic Countries, Gothenburg, Sweden.Google Scholar
  7. El Diasty R, Fazio P, Budaiwi I (1992). Modelling of indoor air humidity: The dynamic behaviour with in enclosure. Energy and Buildings, 19: 61–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. El Diasty R, Fazio P, Budaiwi I (1993). The dynamic modeling air humidity behavior in a multi-zone space. Building and Environment, 28: 33–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fang L, Clausen G, Fanger PO (1998a). Impact of temperature and humidity on the perception of indoor air quality. Indoor Air, 8: 80–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fang L, Clausen G, Fanger PO (1998b). Impact of temperature and humidity on the perception of indoor air quality during and longer whole-body exposures. Indoor Air, 8: 276–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goswami DY (2004). Energy resources: Solar energy resources. In: Kreith F, Goswami DY (eds), The CRC Handbook of Mechanical Engineering, 2nd Edn. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  12. Hood I (2006). Field survey of indoor and outdoor climatic conditions and airtightness level prevailing in two northern housing regions. Status Report: Carmacks Survey, Vancouver. Report submitted to NRC-IRC, Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
  13. Hutcheon NB, Handegord GOP (1995). Chapter 12: Water and buildings. In: Hutcheon NB, Handegord GOP (eds), Building Science for a Cold Climate. Ottawa: National Research Council of Canada.Google Scholar
  14. Jones R (1993). Modeling water vapor conditions in buildings. Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, 14: 99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jones R (1995). Indoor humidity calculation procedures. Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, 16: 119–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kumaran K, Lackey J, Normandin N, Tariku F, van Reenen D (2002). A thermal and moisture transport property database for common building and insulating materials. Final Report—ASHRAE Research Project 1018-RP.Google Scholar
  17. Kumaran MK (2005). Indoor humidity as a boundary condition for whole building HAM analysis. Annex 41 Working Document, A41-T3-C-05-1.Google Scholar
  18. Kusuda T (1983). Indoor humidity calculations. ASHRAE Transactions, 89(2): 728–740.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  19. Loudon AG (1971). The effect of ventilation and building design factors on the risk of condensation and mould growth in dwellings. The Architects’ Journal, 153: 1149–1159.Google Scholar
  20. Orme M, Liddament MW, Wilson A (1998). Numerical data for air infiltration and natural ventilation calculations—Table 3.5. AIVC TN 44. Coventry, UK: Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre.Google Scholar
  21. Oreszczyn T, Pretlove S (1999). Condensation targeter II: Modeling surface relative humidity to predict mould growth in dwellings. Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, 20: 143–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rode C, Grau K (2003). Whole building hygrothermal simulation model. ASHRAE Transactions, 109(1): 572–582.Google Scholar
  23. Rousseau M, Manning M, Said MN, Cornick SM, Swinton MC, Kumaran MK (2007). Characterization of indoor hygrothermal conditions in houses in different northern climates. In: Prodeedings of the Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings X International Conference, Clearwater Beach, USA.Google Scholar
  24. Sandberg PJ (1995). Building components and building elements— Calculation of surface temperature to avoid critical surface humidity and calculation of interstitial condensation. Draft European Standard CEN/TC 89/W 10 N 107.Google Scholar
  25. van Schijndel AWM, Hensen JLM (2005). Integrated heat, air and moisture modeling toolkit in MatLab. In: Proceeding of the ninth International IBPSA Conference (pp. 1107–1113), Montreal, Canada.Google Scholar
  26. Stad T (2006). Energuide and Condition Report Summary, Carmacks, Yukon. Report submitted to NRC-IRC, Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
  27. Sterling EM, Arundel A, Sterling TD (1985). Criteria for human exposure to humidity in occupied buildings. ASHRAE Transactions, 91(1): 611–621.Google Scholar
  28. Tariku F (2008). Whole Building Heat and Moisture Analysis. PhD Thesis, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada.Google Scholar
  29. Tariku F, Kumaran MK, Fazio P (2009). The need for an accurate indoor humidity model for building envelope performance analysis. Paper presented in the 4th International Building Physics Conference, Istanbul, Turkey.Google Scholar
  30. Tariku F, Kumaran MK, Fazio P (2010a). Transient model for coupled heat, air and moisture transfer through multilayered porous media. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 53: 3035–3044.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  31. Tariku F, Kumaran MK, Fazio P (2010b). Integrated analysis of whole-building heat, air and moisture transfer. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 53: 3111–3120.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. TenWolde A (1988). Mathematical model for indoor humidity in houses during winter. In: Proceedings of Symposium on Air Infiltration, Ventilation and Moisture Transfer, Washington DC, Building Thermal Envelope Coordinating Council.Google Scholar
  33. TenWolde A (1994). Ventilation, humidity, and condensation in manufactured houses during winter. ASHRAE Transactions, 100(1): 103–115.Google Scholar
  34. TenWolde A, Walker IS (2001). Interior moisture design loads for residences. In: Proceedings of the Performance of Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings VIII: Integration of Building Envelopes, Clearwater Beach, USA.Google Scholar
  35. Toftum J, Fanger PO (1998). Air humidity requirements for human comfort. ASHRAE Transactions, 105(2): 641–647.Google Scholar
  36. Trechsel HR (2001). Chapter 1: Moisture primer. In: Trechsel HR (ed), Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control in Building Envelopes, ASTM Manual Series, MNL 40. Philadelphia, PA: ASTM International.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tsongas G, Burch D, Roos C, Cunningham M (1996). A parametric study of wall moisture contents using a revised variable indoor relative humidity version of the MOIST transient heat and moisture transfer model. In: Proceedings of the Thermal Performance of Exterior Envelopes VI Conference, Clearwater Beach, USA.Google Scholar
  38. Watanabe T, Urano Y, Hayashi T (1983). Procedures for separating direct and diffuse isolation on a horizontal surface and prediction of isolation on tilted surfaces. Transactions of the Architectural Institute of Japan, 330: 96–108.Google Scholar
  39. Woloszyn M, Rode C (2008). Modeling and principles and common exercices. Annex 41 Whole Building Heat, Air and Moisture Response (Volume 1). IEA, Executive Committee on Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems.Google Scholar
  40. Zhang Q, Huang J, Lang S (2002). Development of typical year weather files for Chinese locations. ASHRAE Transaction, 108(2): 1063–1075.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.British Columbia Institute of TechnologyBurnabyCanada
  2. 2.National Research CouncilInstitute for Research in ConstructionOttawaCanada
  3. 3.Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering DepartmentConcordia UniversityMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations