Vaccine adjuvants: smart components to boost the immune system
- 472 Downloads
Vaccination is an effective approach to prevent the consequences of infectious diseases. Vaccines strengthen immunity and make individuals resistant to infections with pathogens. Although conventional vaccines are highly immunogenic, they are associated with some safety issues. Subunit vaccines are safe, but they require adjuvants to stimulate the immune system because of their weaker immunogenicity. Adjuvants are entities incorporated into vaccines to increase the immunogenic responses of antigens. They play a crucial role in increasing the potency and efficacy of vaccines. Different adjuvants have different modes of action; therefore, a better understanding of their immunology could provide guidance for the development of novel adjuvants. Numerous studies have been conducted using different types of adjuvants to characterize their potency and safety; however, in practice, only few are used in human or animal vaccines. This review aims to introduce the different modes of action of adjuvants and give insight into the types of adjuvants that possess the greatest potential for adjuvanticity.
KeywordsVaccines Adjuvants Modes of action Types of adjuvants
This research was supported by Technology Development Program (Project No. 316093-2 and Project No. 316094-2) for Bio-industry, Ministry for Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Republic of Korea.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All the authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- Bayry J, Prabhudas K, Gopalakrishna S, Patil PK, Ramkrishna C, Misra LD, Suryanarayana VVS (1999) Protective immune response to 16 kDa immunoreactive recombinant protein encoding the C-Terminal VP1 portion of foot and mouth disease virus type Asia 1. Microbiol Immunol 43:765–771CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Eldridge JH, Staas JK, Meulbroek JA, Tice TR, Gilley RM (1991) Biodegradable and biocompatible poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres as an adjuvant for staphylococcal enterotoxin B toxoid which enhances the level of toxin-neutralizing antibodies. Infect Immun 59:2978–2986PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Fazeli MR, Dinarvand R, Samadi N, Mahboubi A, Ilka H, Sharifzadeh M, Azadi S, Moghanlou A, Mirzaei Salehabady M, Valadkhani M (2008) Aluminum phosphate shows more adjuvanticity than aluminum hydroxide in recombinant hepatitis–B vaccine formulation. DARU 16:143–148Google Scholar
- Gerdts V (2015) Adjuvants for veterinary vaccines-types and modes of action. Berl Münch Tierärztliche Wochenschr 128:456–463Google Scholar
- InvivoGen (2011) Vaccine adjuvants–review. http://www.invivogen.com/review-vaccine-adjuvants Accessed 25 Jan 2017
- Morel S, Didierlaurent A, Bourguignon P, Delhaye S, Baras B, Jacob V, Planty C, Elouahabi A, Harvengt P, Carlsen H, Kielland A, Chomez P, Garcon N, Van Mechelen M (2011) Adjuvant system AS03 containing α-tocopherol modulates innate immune response and leads to improved adaptive immunity. Vaccine 29:2461–2473CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shah RR, Brito LA, O’Hagan DT, Amiji MM (2015) Emulsions as vaccine adjuvants. In: Foged C, Rades T, Perrie Y, Hook S (eds) Subunit vaccine delivery. Springer, New York, pp 59–76Google Scholar