Archives of Pharmacal Research

, Volume 40, Issue 11, pp 1328–1335 | Cite as

Mollugin enhances the osteogenic action of BMP-2 via the p38–Smad signaling pathway

Research Article


Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) has been used clinically to encourage bone regeneration; although, there can be major side effects with larger doses. Therefore, there is a need to identify new small molecules to potentiate the osteogenic action of BMP-2. In this study, we investigated the effect of mollugin on bone formation in murine bi-potential mesenchymal progenitor C2C12 cells by combination with BMP-2. We found mollugin could enhance the BMP-2-mediated osteoblast differentiation of C2C12 cells. This was accompanied by the induction of other osteogenic BMPs. We also found the enhancing potential of mollugin may involve activation of the p38–Smad1/5/8 signaling axis. Furthermore, mollugin promoted skeletal development in zebrafish. The combination of BMP-2 with small molecules, including mollugin, could minimize its clinical limitations, and these molecules might lead to the development of effective stem cell stimulants for bone regeneration and fracture healing.


Mollugin BMP-2 p38 Smad Osteoblast Bone formation 



This work was supported by a project Grant (KK1703-F02) from the Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bio & Drug Discovery Division, Center for Drug Discovery TechnologyKorea Research Institute of Chemical TechnologyDaejeonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of BiologyChungnam National UniversityDaejeonRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Strategy and PlanningKorea Institute of Science and Technology InformationSeoulRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.College of Pharmacy and Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical SciencesYonsei UniversityIncheonRepublic of Korea

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