Isorhamnetin derivatives and piscidic acid for hypercholesterolemia: cholesterol permeability, HMG-CoA reductase inhibition, and docking studies
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Bioactive compounds, such as isorhamnetin and piscidic acid, were obtained from decoctions of cladodes (stem pads from Opuntia ficus-indica). The effect of these phenolic compounds, in a fiber-free extract, were evaluated as inhibitors of cholesterol permeation through a Caco-2 cell monolayer and as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor. A reduction of 38% in cholesterol permeation through the Caco-2 cell monolayer was obtained, and the phenolic compounds all permeated between 6 and 9%. A mixture of these compounds showed an IC50 of 20.3 μg/mL as an enzyme inhibitor, whereas piscidic acid alone showed an IC50 of 149.6 μg/mL; this was slightly outperformed by the isorhamnetin derivatives. Docking studies confirmed that both piscidic acid and isorhamnetin derivatives, present in the decoction, could adequately bind to the enzyme active site. These results reveal that O. ficus-indica, and cladodes derived there from, is a promising plant for use in the development of new functional foods and pharmaceutical products.
KeywordsIsorhamnetin derivatives Cholesterol permeability Cell lines HMG-CoA reductase Docking studies Piscidic acid
We acknowledge financial support from the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia through Project UID/MULTI/00612/2013.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
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