Skip to main content

Development and application of a UPLC method for studying influence of phenological stage on chemical composition of Scutellariae Radix

Abstract

The influence of phenological stages on chemical composition of Scutellariae Radix (SR), the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, was investigated. In order to deal with a large quantity of samples, a rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) was first developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of five flavonoids, namely baicalin (baicalein-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, BG), wogonoside (wogonin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, WG), baicalein (BA), wogonin (WO), oroxylin A (OA) in the samples. Good linearity was obtained in the range of 0.742–389 ng (r 2 > 0.9999) and satisfactory recoveries were obtained (101.72–104.56 %) with the RSD value below 5.0 %, for all analytes. Also, extraction conditions were optimized to obtain maximum extractive contents of the five flavonoids. Content variations of the five active ingredients in 225 samples from three different origins were investigated in five major phenological periods. It was found that the effect of phenology on the contents of the tested five flavonoids was similar in the three origins. The contents of flavone O-glycosides, i.e., BG and WG accumulated to the highest level in leaf expansion period, while flavonoid aglycones, i.e., BA, WO and OA appeared a maximum concentration in flowering period. The UPLC method established in this study was rapid and of good accuracy, repeatability and resolution, and hence can assist in the quality control of SR.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  1. Beaubien, E.G., and H.J. Freeland. 2000. Spring phenology trends in Alberta, Canada: links to ocean temperature. International Journal of Biometeorology 44: 53–59.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Blach-Olszewska, Z., B. Jatczak, A. Rak, M. Lorenc, B. Gulanowski, A. Drobna, and E. Lamer-Zarawska. 2008. Production of cytokines and stimulation of resistance to viral infection in human leukocytes by Scutellaria baicalensis flavones. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research 28: 571–582.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Chen, B., L. Ma, X. Wang, Y. Shen, and X. Jia. 2013. Simultaneous determination of 5 phenolic acids in fried Fructus xanthii from different production sites and its dispensing granules by using ultra-pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacognosy Magazine 9: 103–108.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Chen, F., K.H. Chan, Y. Jiang, R.Y.T. Kao, H.T. Lu, K.W. Fan, V.C.C. Cheng, W.H.W. Tsui, I.F.N. Hung, T.S.W. Lee, Y. Guan, J.S.M. Peiris, and K.Y. Yuen. 2004. In vitro susceptibility of 10 clinical isolates of SARS coronavirus to selected antiviral compounds. Journal of Clinical Virology 31: 69–75.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Horvath, C.R., P.A. Martos, and P.K. Saxena. 2005. Identification and quantification of eight flavones in root and shoot tissues of the medicinal plant Huang-qin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detection. Journal of Chromatography A 1062: 199–207.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Huang, W.H., A.R. Lee, and C.H. Yang. 2006. Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of polyhydroxyflavonoids of Scutellaria baicalensis GEORGI. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 70: 2371–2380.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Fang, Z., J.B. Yang, and K.C. Wang. 2002. Growth characteristics and accumulation of the active ingredient of Scutellaria baicalensis. Journal of Chinese Medicine and Materials 25: 84–85.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Gao, J.Y., A. Sanchez-Medina, B.A. Pendry, M.J. Hughes, G.P. Webb, and O. Corcoran. 2008. Validation of a HPLC method for flavonoid biomarkers in skullcap (Scutellaria) and its use to illustrate wide variability in the quality of commercial tinctures. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 11: 77–87.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Gao, Z.H., K.X. Huang, X.L. Yang, and H.B. Xu. 1999. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of flavonoids extracted from the radix of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Biochimica Biophysica Acta 1472: 643–650.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Li, H.B., Y. Jiang, and F. Chen. 2004. Separation methods used for Scutellaria baicalensis active components. Journal of Chromatography B 812: 277–290.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Lu, P.L., Q. Yu, J.D. Liu, and Q.T. He. 2006. Effects of changes in spring temperature on flowering dates of woody plants across China. Botanical Studies 47: 153–161.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Meussen, B.J., A.N.T. van Zeeland, M.E. Bruins, and J.P.M. Sanders. 2014. A fast and accurate UPLC method for analysis of proteinogenic amino acids. Food Analytical Methods 7: 1047–1055.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Patel, P.S., N. Joshee, A.M. Rimando, and P. Parajuli. 2013. Anti-cancer scopes and associated mechanisms of Scutellaria extract and flavonoid wogonin. Current Cancer Therapy Reviews 9: 34–42.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Sato, D., S. Kondo, K. Yazawa, Y. Mukudai, C. Li, T. Kamatani, H. Katsuta, Y. Yoshihama, T. Shirota, and S. Shintani. 2013. The potential anticancer activity of extracts derived from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis on human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Molecular Clinical Oncology 1: 105–111.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. Seo, O.N., G.S. Kim, Y.H. Kim, S. Park, S.W. Jeong, S.J. Lee, J.S. Jin, and S.C. Shin. 2013. Determination of polyphenol components of Korean Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry: contribution to overall antioxidant activity. Journal of Functional Foods 5: 1741–1750.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Wan, M.W., and X.Z. Liu. 1979. Method of phenology observation of China, 56. Beijing: Science Press.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Wang, X.M., Y.J. Deng, H.J. Zhong, Y.L. Hao, Y. Chen, and D. Wang. 2005. Study on the best harvest time of Scutellaria baicalensis in Huairou district Hebei province. Journal of Chinese Medicine and Materials 28: 5–7.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Wang, D., Y.J. Jiang, Y. Liang, L. Zhao, S.Q. Cai, M.Y. Shang, P.F. Yuan, Y.Y. Zhao, and X. Wang. 2012. Research on relationship between commercial specifications of Scutellariae Radix and chemical composition and drug quality. China Journal of Chinese Materials and Medicine 37: 426–433.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Wang, Z., P. Ma, L.J. Xu, C.N. He, Y. Peng, and P.G. Xiao. 2013. Evaluation of the content variation of anthraquinone glycosides in rhubarb by UPLC-PDA. Chemistry Central Journal 7: 170.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  20. Yang, Y.C., M.C. Wei, T.C. Huang, S.Z. Lee, and S.S. Lin. 2013. Comparison of modified ultrasound-assisted and traditional extraction methods for the extraction of baicalin and baicalein from Radix Scutellariae. Industrial Crops and Products 45: 182–190.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Zhang, L., W. Liu, X. Wang, W.J. Duan, J. Zhou, F. Liu, and Q.D. Zhang. 2013. Dynamic changes of active constituents in different growth stage of Scutellaria baicalensis. Chinese Journal of Experimental and Traditional Medicine Formulae 19: 127–131.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by grants from the Program of Natural Science Foundation of State (No. 81202903 and No. 30572338) and the Special Fund of National Bureau of TCM (No. 201407003).

Conflict of interest

The authors declared no conflict of interest.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bin Yang.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Li, H., Dong, H., Su, J. et al. Development and application of a UPLC method for studying influence of phenological stage on chemical composition of Scutellariae Radix. Arch. Pharm. Res. (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12272-014-0512-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • UPLC
  • Method validation
  • Flavonoid
  • Scutellariae Radix
  • Content variation
  • Harvesting time