l-Arginase, hydrolyzing l-arginine to l-ornithine and urea, is a powerful anticancer, l-arginine-depleting agent, against argininosuccinate synthase expressing tumors. Otherwise, the higher antigenicity and lower thermal stability of this enzyme was the main biochemical hurdles. Since, the intrinsic thermal stability of enzymes follow the physiological temperature of their producer, thus, characterization of l-arginase from thermotolerant Penicillium chrysogenum was the objective of this study. l-Arginase (Arg) was purified to its homogeneity from P. chrysogenum by 10.1-fold, with 37.0 kDa under denaturing PAGE, optimum reaction at 50 °C, pH stability (6.8–7.9), with highest molar ratio of constitutional arginine, glutamic acid, lysine and aspartic acid. The purified enzyme was PEGylated and immobilized on chitosan, with 41.9 and 22.1 % yield of immobilization. At 40 °C, the T1/2 value of free-Arg, PEG-Arg and Chit-Arg was 10.4, 15.6, 20.5 h, respectively. The free-Arg and Chit-Arg have a higher affinity to l-arginine (K m 4.8 mM), while, PEG-Arg affinity was decreased by about 3 fold (K m 15.2 mM). The inhibitory constants to the free and PEG-Arg were relatively similar towards HA and PPG. The IC50 for the free enzyme against HEPG-2 and A549 tumor cells was 0.136 and 0.165 U/ml, comparing to 0.232 and 0.496 U/ml for PEG-Arg, respectively. The in vivo T1/2 to the free Arg and PEG-Arg was 16.4 and 20.4 h, respectively as holo-enzyme. The residual l-arginine level upon using free Arg was 156.9 and 144.5 µM, after 6 and 8 h, respectively, regarding to initials at 253.6 µM, while for Peg-Arg the level of l-arginine was nil till 7 h of initial dosing. The titer of IgG was induced by 10–15 % in response to free-Arg after 28 days comparing to IgG titer for PEG-Arg.
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We appreciate the partial financial support by Zagazig University, Egypt, to Ashraf El-Sayed. We gratefully thank Prof. Sadik Esener, Nanoengineering Dep., University of California, San Diego, CA, USA, for his valuable discussion and revision of this work.
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El-Sayed, A.S., Shindia, A.A., Diab, A.A. et al. Purification and immobilization of l-arginase from thermotolerant Penicillium chrysogenum KJ185377.1; with unique kinetic properties as thermostable anticancer enzyme. Arch. Pharm. Res. (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12272-014-0498-y
- Thermotolerant Penicillium chrysogenum
- Thermal stability