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A Robust Percutaneous Myocardial Infarction Model in Pigs and Its Effect on Left Ventricular Function


In this study, we created a reproducible myocardial infarction (MI) model in pigs characterized by a low mortality rate and significant changes in left ventricular function. After administering an arrhythmia prevention regimen, we created a 90-min balloon-induced percutaneous MI in 42 pigs below the first diagonal branch (D1) of the left anterior descending artery. Echocardiograms were performed before and 14 days after MI induction. Pigs with a > 30% decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) underwent electrophysiological mapping by the NOGA system. Our mortality rate was 4.8%. The incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) was 28.6%; all VF events were successfully resuscitated. At day 14, echocardiography and NOGA mapping confirmed transmural scar. LVEF decreased 41% from baseline. Radial and circumferential strain significantly decreased in the LAD distal to D1, and the LV showed dyssynchrony. An anti-arrhythmia regimen decreased mortality significantly, and our model induced dramatic functional changes.

Graphical abstract

The basic procedures of the model included an arrhythmia prevention protocol and myocardial infarction creation, which effectively decreased mortality and provided a robust change in left ventricular (LV) function after 14 days.

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Data Availability

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.



Activated clotting time


Left ventricular


Left ventricular end-diastolic volume


Left ventricular ejection fraction


Left ventricular end-systolic volume


Myocardial infarction


Premature ventricular contraction


Right anterior oblique


Ventricular fibrillation


Ventricular tachycardia


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The authors thank Rebecca Bartow, PhD, of the Scientific Publications Department at the Texas Heart Institute for her editorial contributions.

Author information




KL: Operator, study design, data analysis, paper writing

LW: Operator, study design, paper writing

AMR: Operator assistant, data collecting, and organizing

DV: Study design, data collecting, and organizing

EP: Operator, Study design, paper writing, and review

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Emerson Perin.

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Ethics Approval and Informed Consent

No human studies were carried out by the authors for this article. All animals used and procedures were approved by the Texas Heart Institute’s institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (Protocol number: 2018-25,2018-38,2020-02).

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Associate Editor Junjie Xiao oversaw the review of this article

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Li, K., Wagner, L., Moctezuma-Ramirez, A. et al. A Robust Percutaneous Myocardial Infarction Model in Pigs and Its Effect on Left Ventricular Function. J. of Cardiovasc. Trans. Res. (2021).

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  • Myocardial infarction
  • Pig model
  • Preclinical model
  • Left ventricular function